The Pleasure Gardens of Pinjore

Gardens of Pinjore

The Pleasure Gardens of Pinjore, now renamed as Yadavindra Gradens at the foothills , of Shivalik hills, are 20 kms. From Chandigrah, and 12 kms from Kalka.The superb scenic beauty of the place has been a centre of great attraction for Maharajas,saitnts and common folks alike .

in ancient times Pandavas came and stayed here during their exile.They built a temple and bath here .Draupadi is said to have used this same bath . in the memory of this visit of the Pandavas,the village came to be known as Panchpura.Pinjore is belived to be the curruped from of Panchpura.

The present garden was built by Nawab Fidai Khan. Governor of the Punjab during Aurangzab’s reign.He was so fascinated by scenic that he at once decided to have a terraced garden as his pleasure reaort.The garden contains seven descending terraces, with an ornamental waterway flowing down the centre and flanked by well laid out lawns and gardens. Overlooking the water course are the three pleasure places-Sheesh Mahal,Rang Mahal and Jal Mahal. The sesh Mahal’s ceiling has numerous mirror pieces encased in geometric patterns.Its windows opening over the waterways offer a beautiful scene of the garden.

The gardens are open down dawn to late night, and accommodation is available in the Rang mahal and Sesh Mahal or in the Guest Hoses within the gardens .Adjacent to the gardens ,is a motel with air-conditioned rooms,a banquet hall and a conference room.

THE SIEGE OF THE GOLDEN TEMPLE

GOLDEN TEMPLE

The most serious issue which confronted Indira Gabdhi in her third term as prime minister was the rise of terrorist violence in the Punjab. One of the most fertile regions in the subcontinent, it enjoyed India’s highest per capita income and its households earned twice as much as other peasant families in the rest of the country. A large part of the Punjab was dominated by the Sikhs who,although they numbered barely 2 percent of India’s total population,formed one of the subcontinent’s most visible and most self-confident minorities.They were particularly well represented in the armed forces where they occupied nearly 10 percent of all the higher posts in the Indian military. Many Sikhs had also risen to prominent positions in the government and in 1982 Giani Zail Singh, Indira Gandhi’s home minister,was elected as India’s first Sikh president.

Since Independence there had been an increasing growth in Sikh political consciousness, led by the main Sikh party, the Akali Dal. In response to growing pressure,in 1966 the Sikhs were given their own state of Punjab which was separated from the other non-Sikh regions. The Akali Dal went on to become the most important political party in the state and in 1976 ousted the Congress party in both the provincial and central elections.Mrs Gandhi,however ,refused to topple the new government.To undermine the Akali Dal’s popularity,Congress politicians sponsored their own Sikh fundamentalist movement led by a young militant,Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale (1947-84). Hoping completely to destabilize the Akali Dal,the government turned a blind eye as Bhindranwale attacked a number of its leaders and supporters. This strategy ,however, backfired: by 1983 Bhindranwale had proved himself more extreme and more dangerous than any other Sikh leader. With a group of armed followers he established his headqurters at the Golden Temple in Amritsar.

Founded in the sixteenth century,the Golden Temple is the holiest shrine in the Sikh religion .It stands in the middle of a lake,surrounded by pavements of pure marble, and is connected with the land by a long marble causeway.The outside was covered with gold leaf, so giving the temple its name.From this peaceful,dignified setting Bhindranwale launched a campaign of terror against the government . Going much further than the Akalis had ever dreamed of, he and his supporters called for an independent Sikh homeland-Khalistan. Anyone who opposed him was assassinated and by the end of 1984 he and his followers had murdered hundreds of moderate Sikhs and Hindus.

The government,which had remained curiously inactive for almost two years,was finally forced to act.In May 1984the Indian army launched a massive operation to clear out the Golden Temple,which had been transformed into a fortress by the rebels.Nearly 70,00 troops were used to surround the area and the army was given strict instructions to use the minimum of force so as not to damage the temple too much. The initial assaults,however, failed completely; Bhindranwale’s men had amassed a huge quantity of heavy weapons which they used to devastating effect.In the first attack alone, nearly 100 Indian soldiers were killed as they charged up the narrow causeway.Finally the army brought in tanks and artillery and battered down the defences.In the process one of India’s most sacred shrines was reduced to a pile of rubble. Operation Blue Star, as it was called, had cost the lives of 200-300 Indian soldiers and almost 1,000 rebels.

The political consequences of the siege were even more devatating.It left the Sikhs of the Punjab in a deep state of shock; the sanctity of their shrine had been violated and they felt deeply humiliated by what they saw as an outrage to their religion.Many amongst them held Indira Gandhi herself personally responsible.This mounting sense of anger found its outlet a few months later when, on the morning of 31 October, as she walked to work Mrs Gandhi was assassinated by two of her most trusted bodyguards, both of them Sikhs.

Lucknow: Famous for Culture,Cupolas and Refinements

Lucknow

This capital of Uttar Pradesh has a number of historic buildings,monuments and gardens.Standing on the banks of the river Gomti,Lucknow is famous for its typical culture,cupolas and refinements.With the disintegration of the Mughal Empire the Nawabs of Oudh became very powerful and independent .They ruled this part of the province for about a century after the fall of the Mughals.The builder of modern Lucknow was Asaf-ud-Daula (1775-1797) ,the fourth Nawab in succession.In this dynasty Wajid Ali Shah was the last ruler,known for his extravagant pleasure loving pranks ,and other tantrums.In 1856 he was deposed and deported to Calcutta by the British. Then after ,the First War of Independence in 1857 took place in which the small chieftains and princes of the adjoining states took on the British forces but they lost eventually. The traces of the struggle of 1857 are still visible here.Its historical buildings are mainly of the 18th century. Aminabad and Hazratganj are its two main shopping centres.In the old city the bazaar , popularly known as “Chowk” a large variety of artistic pieces,brocades, saris, pottery, embroidery and chican work overflow the shops. Lucknow is also famous for Dusseri Mangoes ,Kakadis and a variety of orginal dishes. This capital city is very well linked with all the major towns and cities of the country by air,rail and road connections.

The following spots in Lucknow deserve special mention:

(a) The Great Imambara

Popularly known as ‘Bara’ Imambara,this was built by Nawab Asaf-ud-Daula in 1784.With its estensive frontage and the huge tomb measuring 15 metres wide ,49 metres long, and 16 metres wide,without any supporting pillars,this is the largest vaulted hall in the world .Its labyrinth of corridors are popularly known as ‘Bhulbhaliyah’ . From the top of this massive structure one can have a fine view of the city .This Imambara was started as a famine relief project in 1784.

(b) The small Imambara

This small or ‘Chota’ Imambara of Hussainabad was built in 1837 by Mohb. Ali Shah. It contains the tomb of Ali shah’s family and the Nawab’s silver covered throne.The edifice is crowned with domes and minarets. The central dome is golden.

(c) British Residency

This extensive structure,reminding of the 1857 struggle for Independence, is now a quiet place with its well maintained gardens and lawns. It was built in 1800 for the British residents in Lucknow.During the uprising of 1857 all the British residents of LUcknow took refuge here till they were rescued on the 87th day by Sir Hevelock.But the revolutionaries besieged it again till sir Colin Compbell broke through the siege the seconed time .Just in front of the Residency is the Martyrs Memorial erected in the honour of the martyrs who dies in 1857 uprising.

Mogao Caves

Mogao Caves

Introduction:

Mogao Caves are famous for their statues and wall paintings and it has religions cultural and intellectual influences. The 492 cells and cave sanctuaries are existed here spanning 1,000 years of Buddhist art. The mogao caves are of unmatched historical value. It is an evidence of the evolution of Buddhist art known as the caves of the thousand Buddhas.

Situation:

Mogao caves are situated in the north west region of china.It is located at a religions and cultural crossroads on the silkrads in Gansu province.

History:

The construction of the Mogao Caves near Dunhaung is generally taken to have began sometimes in the fourth century CE. Dunhuang as established by the Han Danasty Emperor Wudi in III BCE. It is an important gateway to the west.During the Tang Dynasty Dunhuang became the main hub of commerce of the silk Road and a major religions centre. A large number of the caves were constructed at Mogao during this era.

Long Description: The Mogao caves has 492 temples about 25 kilometres southeast of the centre of Dunhuang. The caves are also known as Dunhuang caves. There are also have western thousand Duddha caves and the Yulin caves further away. The first caves were dug out in 366 CE as places of Buddhist meditation and worship. The mogao caves are the best known of the Chinese Buddhist grottoes and along with Longmen Grottoes and Yungang Grottoes are one of the three ancient Buddhist seulptural sites of china. An important document as library cave was found in 1900. It was walled up in II century.It is the largest collection found in Beijing, paris, Barlin and London. International Dunhuang project exists to coordinate and collect scholarly work on the Dunhuang manuscripts and other material. The caves are now considered as popular tourist place and open for visiting.

The main attraction of Mogao Caves:

Mogao caves are very famous for its tourists attraction.

The main attraction are:

  1. the library caves
  2. Dunhaung manuscripts
  3. architecture
  4. stucco
  5. sculpture
  6. wall paintings
  7. silk paintings
  8. calligraphy
  9. wood block
  10. embroidery
  11. literature
  12. music
  13. dance
  14. popular entertainments
  15. printed images
  16. Textiles
  17. caves

The Mogao caves were inscribed on the world Heritage list in 1987.

Bisotun:Archaeological Site

Briston

Introduction:

Bisotun is a city and capital of bisotun District. At the 2006 census its population was 2075 and families were 527. this is the only known monumental test of the Achaemenids to document the re-establishment of the Empire by Darihs.

Situation:

Bisotiun is located along the ancient trade route linking the tranian high plateau with

Mesopotemia and features remains from the prehistoric times to the median, Achaemenid , Sassanian and Ilkhanid periods.

Long Description:

The principal monument of this archaeological site is the bas-relief and cuneiform inscription. This was ordered by darius I, the great. He rose to the throne of persion Empire during 521 BC. The bas relief portrays Darius holding a bow, as a sign of sovereignty and treading on the chest of a figure who lies on his back before him.

According to the legend, the figure represents Gaumata, the median Magus and pretender to the throne. Their assassination led to Darius’s rise to power. Below and around the bas-relifs, there are ca. 1,200 hnes of incriptions telling the story of the battles.Darins waged in 521-520 BC against the governors who attempted to take a pert the Empire founded by Cyrus.

The Description is written in three languages. The oldest is an Elamite text referring to legends describing the king and the rebellions. This is followed by Baylonian version of similar legends. The last phase of this Description

Is particularly important.Darius introduced for the first time the old Persian version of his resgestae. It also bears witness to the interchange of influeness in the development of monument art and writing in the region of the Persian Empire.There are also remains from the Median period as well as from the Achaemenid and post Achaemenid periods.

Jammu and Kashmir the World’s Heaven

Karakoram-West_Tibetan_Plateau_alpine_steppe

Climate:

Jammu: Winter-Average 20*C .

SummerAverage 35*C.

Srinagar: Winter-Average Below 0* to 30*

Summer Average

Langusge: Kashmiri,Dogri,Ladakhi.

Best Season: April-Octor & December-January.

Area: 2,22,236 sq.kms. (provisional).

Population: About 80 lakhs.

(i)Jammu

The second largest city of the state and its summer capital ,Jammu is situated on a Shivalick hillock,with the river .Tawi flowing by at the foot of the hill.Jammu is said to have been founded by Jamboo Lochan some 3,00years back.The city has long been a centre of Indian culture and arts.It is especially famous for its exquisite Pahari School of miniature Paintings. There are many Hindu,Muslim and Sikh shrines, but the best known is Raghunath Temple in the heart of the city ,built in 1835.60 kms. North-east of Jammu is the famous shrine of Vaishno Devi. The holy cave shrine situated at the altitude of 5,300 feet is visited by thousands of devotees every year.The traditional pilgrimage is made during the Navaratra preceeding Dussehra in October and preceeding Ram Navmi in late March or April.

 

Jammu city in itself has nothing much to offer besides acting as the resting place for pilgrims going to Vaishno Devi or tourists going to Srinagar .Thus Jammu is a gateway for the Valley of Kashmir.

(a) BAsohli

East-South of Jammu near Dalhousie (Himachal) is Basohli,the birth place of renowned art of Pahari Miniatures.It is in tradition of the great Ajanta Art. Its wide spread influence can be seen on many other schools popular in Jammu and neighbouring Himachal.

(b)Sudh Mahadeva

Situated oon the banks of river Devaka, Sudh Mahadev is associated with many Shiva myths. Pilgrims in thousands congregate at the shrine during the three days festival of Ashadh-Purnima in July-August.There is a regular bus service to Sudh Mahadev from Jammu,however ,an eight kilometer pleasant walking or jeepable road connects Sudh Mahadev with beautiful hill resort of Patnitop on Jammu-Srinagar highway.

(ii) The Kashmir Valley

Kashmir is described variously as the paradise on earth ,the dream-land, the choicest creation of God,etc. Jehanghir is said to have quoted the following Persian Sher in praise of Kashmir . Gar Firdaus BavRoo-e-Zemin-ast Hamin asto,Hamin asto,Hamin ast.

The same sheri is etched in the walls of the Diwan-i-Aam in Red Fort Delhi which means if there be paradise anywhere on the earth; it is here,it is here ,it is here! The vale of Kashmir in its sheer beauty and enchantment surpasses even the imagination . Kashmir is unmatched by any other country for its prestine loveliness,placid lakes reflecting like a mirror,the scenic beauty,green meadows laced by gurbling streams,luxurious houseboats,stately chinar,tall snow capped mountain, the highest golf course in the world,flowers of many hues and scents and the proverbial beauty of its maidens.

Ladakh: The Roof of the Wood

WorldhistopediaFamous by various names [the lunar landscape,the last Shangrila,the Little Tibbet] ,Ladakh lies beyond the Kasmir Valley, in the inhospitable remote and arid terrain of karakoram Mountains .Ladakh occupies the 70% of the tatal area of the state of Jammu and Kashmir .For centuries it remained closed to the outside world .It was in mid 70’s that it was made accessible to tourists,and only since 1979 it has been on the air map of India : This stark,sun backed barren wind –swept,forbodding, rugged yet exciting land is the abode of lamsaries ,yaks,hoary palaces perched on pinnacles, and time –defying Buddist art and culture.Its isolation coupled with elevation mark it an unusal place,a lend for those who love real temperature and very low rainfall and inhospitable environs,it is a fascinating place indeed for those who have a taste for unspoilted virgin nature.

The ancient capital city Leh at an attitude of 3,500 metres,lies off the banks of the River Indus (Sindh) and at the trijunction of famous Chinese Sikh Route from Sinhiang to West Asia and the Indian plains.Leh is connected with Srinagar by a road mostly open from May through November.The highway passes through panoramic landscapes and beautiful tiny villages and high passes along the river Sindh. There is a regular bus service between Srinagar and Leh.Indian Airlines operates flight from Delhi via Chandigrh to Srinagar. The flight from Srinagar-Leh is both short and breath taking as the plane passes over spectacular Himalayan mountains and valleys.The journey even by road is more than a good value for all the trouble involved,but it is not a destination for all and sundry.

Enroute Leh one comes across Kargil (famous for Zanskar Valley,Mublekh ,famous for 24 feet high carved out statue of Maitreya or future Buddha),Lamaru (famous for the oldest monastery dating beack to the tenth century),Alchi, Lekir & Bagso (famous for various shrines dedicated to the Buddhism) and Spitok Monastery (famous for Kali statue whose face is unveiled only once every year around puja days).

Leh has a few places of tourist interest mostly dedicated to Buddhism.They are the Khar Palace,Leh Gompa (Gompa is the local term for monastery ),Shankar Gompa,Shey Palace & Gompa and Zanskar (mainly attractive for trekkers with an adventurous spirit). There are typically Ladakhian buildings for stay where one can stay after paying reasonable rent .Both private and government agencies run these staying places and rest houses.

Dharuka Monsa Bari at Shariatpur

32262_100436186668811_671059_n-300x225The shadar upazilla of present shariatpur is palong . Dhanuka village is situated in the North side of the shadar upazilla .This area was included in Bikrampur Pargana.Like the story of Dhanuka village,that is spreaded in the proverb,the importance of archaeology of this village has also been said in different time.An important archaeological place of middle age is found here which displays its history.That is known as,especially,Moiyurbhathaya cottage or Monsa cottage. Except archaeological sign,Moinyurbhattaya cottage and Monsa cottage has have also two legends.

Monsa cottage is situated in about kilometere North side from the shariatpur Deputy commissioner office . There are five buildings in this sottage.Though most of the buildings are almost destroyed and decayed,some of them still stand with pride and pride,inspite of their old age . according to the local sayings and building beauty ,archaeologist assumed that the buildings were used as Monsa temple,kali temple,Nahabat khana and living room or educational institution.It canbe assumed from the building techniques and building work of the buildings that.They were built during Moghul or Sultanat empire.There are found shadoues of trees,songs of birds. There is a crystal clear pond in the very entrance of the Monsa cottage. On the there sides of big yard of the main cottage there architectures are situated with their own quality.There is a two shade like bungalow,facing East,in the middle of west side of the yard .once it was used as Monsa temple .There is a larger building facing South in the North side.This two shade building is a bitdifferent design,faced to Durga temple . It was a Nahabat khana and its roof is destroyed and its most of the 1st floor and a part of the ground floor have been destroyed.There is a multi room two storeyed building long ,from North to south,in the south side of the temple house.The almost destroyed part of structure of south-west is still found .

This area of Monsa cottage is place of education as idenlified legend:

The architectural sign of Monsa cottage causes curiosity in researchers mind .This curissity will increase hearing the two legends which developed depending on Monsa cottage . At first Monsa cottage was known as Moiyurbhatlaya cottage.According to the legend,the family of Vattayacharya came from knonwz of India and started to live in Dhanuka.Moiyurbhattaya was predecess or of them .When he was embryo ,his parents ,once,started for kashi .on the way to kashi ,his mother bears him in a jungle .since his mother was devoted to religion ,she started for kashi,again,covering him with shalpata(local language).After the prayer in Kashi,god came to Vattaclearya family. The god informed them that their prayer was not granted to him. Because of leaving their just born child in the jungle without any safety . At last reslizing their fault they returned to the jungle and saw that a peacock covered the child with its wings .Since the child was sheltered by a peacock and regained its mother ,it was named Moiyurbhattaya. Later ,the house of Moiyurbhatta was named Moiyurbhatta house. That was the legend of Moiyurbhatta cottage .

The legend of Monsa cottage:

A teen boy of Moiyurbhattaya house was used to collecting flower from the garden.In a morning he saw a snake in the garden during collecting flower .Fearing for the snake he returned home without flower.Next day he again saw the snake during collecting flower.The snake came home following the boy and started to dance started rounding him. The people of the house started noticing with amazement and fear .At night goddess Monsa came to their dream and ordered them to worship her.After that there was established Monsa temple and thus Monsa cottage was named.

TajMahal: Glorious Heritage Site in the World

তাজমহলMumtaj Mahal was the favourite queen of Emperor Shah Jehan but unfortunately,she died in 1630 at Burhanpur in childbirth.The Emperor was grief-stricken for many months and then in an attempt to make his wife’s name last for ever ,he ordered construction of this grand memorial.when the ‘Taj-Bibi-ka Rauza’ was completed,the dead body of Mumtaj Mahal was brought from Burhanpur and laid in the vault where now it rests.

The best architects and craftsmen from India,Persia,Central Asia,Arabia and Italy were engaged to build this magnificent monument of love which marked the consummation of the Mughal architecture.As many as 20 thousand workmen were employed to construct it and it took 17 years to complete. The entire team of the master builder Ustad Isha,a Persian master designer and architect . it is said that Shah Jehan wanted to erect a mausoleum of black marble opposite to the Taj Mahal on the other bonk of the river Yamuna, and then to connect by a causeway, but that was not to be.He was soon deposed and imprisoned by Aurangzeb.

The red sandstone gateqay to the Taj is quite imposing.An Arabic inscription in black marble taken from the Koran decorates the gate .A long water course which beautifully reflects the image of the Taj divides the path leading to the monument into two lanes. A flight to steps leads upto the platform on which stand the flame of eternal love depicted in marble.Its four minarets stands like the faithful guards.The central chamber contains the tombs of Mumtaj Mahal and her Lord Shah jehan,with inscriptions from Holy Koran.The actual tombs containing the remains of this royal couple are just below in the vault.This vault is normally opened only once in a year,on the anniversary day of the building of this grand edifice.The central chamber is surrounded by eight smaller ones.The light in the chamber is admitted through finely latticed marble screens.The echo in the central chamber under the huge soaring central dome is really a marble. A sound softly produced is echoed in an endless harmony .The superb inlay work of the Taj involving such precious and semiprecious stones as jade, jesper, crystal, turquoise, lapis lazuli, sapphire,coral,onyx and amethyst,glows in the light filtered through the finely cut marble screens.The fantastic and fascinating beauty of the Taj defies description.

The Taj is open to visitors from sunrise to 10 p.m. and entry fee is Rs 2. Every full moon night and four nights preceeding and following it, the taj remains open till midnaight.Children below 15 are admitted free.Friday is a free-admission day for all.

Brazil

Brief Discussion:
Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world from both population and size. It is the largest country of south America in size. It has 26 sates. Officially Brazil uses only one language that is Portuguese. The name of the capital is Brazilia .The government system is Democratic Republic .

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