Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan, is a doubly landlocked country in central Asia with a territory of 447,400 km.It has a population of 27.8 million.Its capital is Tashkand.The official language is Uzbek and the currency name is som.the primary religion is Islam which is followed by 96.3% of the population. 1st sept. is the sountry’s national day.Uzbekistan is a secular, unitary and a constitutional republican country.
The government system of Uzbekistan is Unitary presidential republic. The president of the Uzbekistan is Islam Karimov. Uzbekistan is called the ‘City of Fountain’ achieved independence 0n 3 Decemder,1992 and became the member of United nations in 1992,March 02.It is a statesman ruled country.
The total area of Uzbekistan is 448 978 square kilometer, which is the 56 position in the world. 5.9 percent of the total area is converted by water. Uzbekistan is bordered by five countries: Kazakhstan and the Aral Sea to the north, Tajikistan to the southeast, Kyrgyzstan to the northeast, Afghanistan to the south and Turkmenistan to the southwest
The total population of Uzbekistan is 30,183,400. Which is the 41st position in the world.The density of the population is 61.4 square kilometer, which is the 136th position in the world.
The total GDP (PPP) of the Uzbekistan is 123.577 billion Dollar. It is estimated 2014. which is the 69 position in the world. Per capita GDP(PPP) is 4.038. Its total nominal GDP is 61.720 billion Dollar. Per capita nominal GDP is 2,017 Dollar.
The Uzbekistan land was once part of the ancient Persian Empire and was later conwuered by Alexander the Great in the 4th century B.C During the 1st centuryB.C central Asia, including present day Uzbekistan,forms an important part of the overland trade routes known as the Great silk Road linking china with middle East and imperial Rome.
During 7th-8th centuries, Arabs conquer the area and convert its inhabitants to Islam.During 9th-10th cnturies, Persian samanid Dynasty becomes dominant and develops Bukhra as important centre of Islamic culture.As it declines, Turkie hordes complete to fill the vacuum.
The Mongols under Ghengis khan take over the region from the Seljuk Truks in the 13th century and it later became part of Tamerlane the Great’s empire and that of his successors until the 16th century.
The Uzbeks invaded the territory in the early 16th century and merged with the other inhabitants in the area.Their empire broke up into separate Uzbek principalities, the khanates of khiva, Bukhara and Kokand.These city states resisted Russian expansion into the area but were conquered by the Russian forces in the mid 19th century.
The territory was made into the Uzbek Republic in 1924 and became the independent Uzbekistan soviet socialist Republic in 1925.Under soviet rule Uzbekistan concentrated on growing cotton with the help of irrigation, nechanization,chemical fertilizers and pesticides, causing serious environmental damage.
In june 1990, Uzbekistan was the first central Asian republic to declare that its own laws had sovereignty over those of the central soviet government.Uzbekistan became fully independent and joined with ten other former soviet republics on Dec.21, 1991, in the common wealth of Independent states.
In the same year, Islam kaeimov, the leader of Uzbek communist party, returned as president in direct elections in which few opposition groups are allowed to field candidates.
President karimove is an autorat who has brutally suppressed political parties and religious freedom and maintained rule with an iron first .
Uzbekistan, out of post soviet states, includes the highest number of political prisioners, a complete lack of freedom of speech, assembly, media and movement, widespread torture, forced labor and religious persecution.
In 1999, the country battled against militant Islamic groups bent on the overthrow of the secular government. Flighting against the Islamic movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) continued for the next several years./
In 2001, Uzbekistan provided the US and UK with a base to flight against Taliban and al-qaeda forces in neighboring Afghanistan and became the united states main regional partner in the war on terror. Karinov linked his own battle against the Islamic opposition to the global fight on terrorism.
In march 2011, the Uzbekistan government expelled all Human Rights Watch employees from the country. Human Rights Watch called on the European union and the United states to come down harder on Uzbekistan for its human rights violations. Both the U.S and the European union have worked to improve relations with Uzbekistan in recent months. A neighbor of Afghanistan, Uzbekistan offers a route for the U.S. to get supplies to get into that country Uzbekistan is a member of the CIS,OSCE,UN and the SCO.
The country’s official language is Uzbek, spoken natively by approximately 85% of the population. Uzbeks constitution 81% of the population. Minoriities include Russians (5.4%) and others(13.5%).
Uzbekistan’s economy relies mainly on commodity production, including cotton,gold, uranium and natural gas. Despite the declared objective of transition to a market economy, its government continues to maintain economic controls which deter foreign investment and imports in favour of domestic import substitution.
The policy of a gradual strictly controlled transition to the market economy has produced beneficial results in the form of economic recovery after 1995.