Turkmenistan, formerly known as Turkmenia, is one of the Turkie states in central Asia with a territory of 488100 km. Its capital is Askhabad. It has a population of 5.2 million.The official language of the country is Turkmen and the currency name is manta. The primary religion of the country is Islam which is followed by 93.1% of the population. 27th oct is the country’s national day.The government system is one party republic.
Government System :
After setting independence from the Soviet Union on October 27, 1991, Turkmenistan is a nominal democratic republic, but there is no more approved political party except the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan.
The president can be both head of state and head of the government if he gets more than 90% of the vote in elections.
The legislative branches are divided into two bodies including the 2,500-member Halk Maslahaty (People’s Council), and the 65-member Mejlis (Assembly). The president is the head of two legislative bodies.The president appoint All judges.The current president is Gurbanguly Berdimuhammadov.
The total area 0f the Turkmenistan is 491,210, which is the 52nd position in the world. The area of 4.9% is coveted by water. Turkmenistan is surrounded by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the northeast and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
The total population of the Turkmenistan is about 5,171,943, which is the 112nd position in the world. The Density of Turkmenistan is 10.5 square kilometer, which is the 208th position in the world.
The total GDP of the Turkmenistan is $43.359 billion ,which was estimated in 2011. Its per capita GDP is 7,846 Dollars. Its total nominal GDP is 25.742 billion dollars.
Archacological evidence shows that people lived in todays Turkmenistan around b3000,000 years ago.In the Neolithic age, agriculture was prevalent in the southern Turkmenistan while cattle breeding and fishing were developed in the north.from relies found in the Togalak Depa, chopan-Depe and Grok-Depe areas it appears that the first human settlement in Turkmenistan occurred between 7000 and 5000BC.
Turkman people created various wonderful world of art in which its territory, mode of life religious beliefs and thoughts were incarnated.
In the 6th century BC.The territory of the modern Turkmenistan was conquered by the Persian Dynasty of Akhemenids. In the 4th century B.C the southern part was conquered by the troops of Alexander the Great.
In the middle of the 3rd century BC. Macedonian rule was over and was replaced in 247 BC. By the state of Parthia. Taking good advantages of Turkmenistan’s position on the great silk route, the parthians had an active economic and commercial life and established cities.After the collapse of Parthian states in 224 AD. A short period of the Sassanids began in the area.
In the second half of the 5th century, Turkmenistan came under the domination of another group, the Ephtalities.This represents the beginning of Turkie domination in Turkmenistan. A a matter of fact, the 6th century in Turkmenistan is known as the century of the Turkie Khagans.
The Arabs came to Turkmenistan in the middle of the 7th century. The Arabs conquered western Turkmenistan and the Khorezm area after several battles and subjugated the whole Turkmenistan. In the 9th century, the Arab rule in Turkmenistan disintegrated and was replaced by the Takhirids and samadians. After the end of samadians rule in 11th century, the area was ruled by the Seljuk Turks. The Mongols of Ghenghis khan conquered the land in the 13th century.
They dominated the area for the next two centuries until they were deposed in the late 15th century by invading Uzbeks. Prior to the 19th century, Turkmenia was devided into two lands, one belonging to the khanate of Bukhara.
In 1868, the khanate of khiva was made part of the Russian Empire and Turkmenia became known as the Transcaspia Region of Russian Turkistan.Turkmanistan was later formed out of the Turkistan Autonomous soviet socialist Republic, founded in 1992, and was made an independent soviet socialist Republic on may 13, 1925.It was the poorest of the soviet Republics.
The country declared its sovereignty in Aug. 1990 and became a member of the common wealth of Independent states on Dec.21 1991, together with ten other former soviet Republics.It establish a government more authoritarian than those functioning in the other newly independent central Asian republics.Turkmenistan was ruled by president for life saparmurat Niyazov ( called Turkmembasy “Leader of the Turkmens”) until his sudden death on Dec 2006.He has attempted to create a cult of personality through extravagant self promotion cities,afters have and a meteor now bear his name. In 2002, he renamed all the months of the calendar April is now named after his mother.
In feb 2007, the country held its first contested elections where Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow was elected the new president.In April 2008, Turkmenistan reverted to its old calendar with Turkie and Russain names when president Berdy-mukhamadov abolished the names of days and months introduced by the previous president.
On Sept.26, 2008, after two decades of isolation under autocratic leader Niyazov, Turkmenistan adopted a new constitution that abolished the existing peoples council and called for a new parliament ( The Mejlish, or Assembly) almost double in size, promoting multy-party politics and a market economy.Parliamentary elections were held in Dec.2008, resulting in the representation of the Majlis being encreased from 65 to 125.
Turkmenistan’s GDP growth rate of 11% in 2012 comes on the back of several years of sustained high growth, albeit from a very basic undiversified economy powered by export of a single commodity.It possesses the world’s fourth largest reserves of natural gas resources in certain areas, most of the country is covered by the Barakum (Black snad)
Desert.Capital of Turkmenistan:Ashgabat is the capital of Turkmenistan with a population of 695,300 (2001 est.)