Thailand, officially the kingdom of Thailand, formerly known as siam, is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula in southeast Asia with a territory of 514,000 km. Its capital city is Bankok. It has 68.1 million people. The national language is Thai and the currency name is Bath. About 75%-80% of the population is ethnically Thai. The primary religion is Buddhism which is practiced by around 95% of the population. Thailand is a parliamentary democracy with constitutional.
The government system of Thailand is constitutional monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government and hereditary monarch is head of state.
The total area of Thailand is 513,120 square kilometer and it’s water part is 2,230 square kilometer which is 0.4% of total area. It is bordered to the east by Laos &Combodia,to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malayasia and to the west by the Andaman Sea ,to the north by Burma and the southern extremity of Burma.
The currency of Thailand is Bhat.
According to the estimate of 2013, the total GDP of Thailand is $ 703.554billion and per capita is $ 10,849. The nominal GDP of is $424.985billion and per capita is $6,572.
The following estimate of 2011,the total population of Thailand is 66,720,153 which is the 20th position of the world and it’s density is 132.1 per kilometer and it is the 88th populated country.
Most of the people of Thailand belong to Theravada Buddhism religion, which is the integral part of Thai identity and culture. Active participation in Buddhism of Thailand is among the highest in the world.According to the census of (2000), 94% people are self-identified as Buddhists and 4.6% people are following Islam,they (Muslims) are the second largest religious group of Thailand, most of them are Sunni Muslims. Christians represent 0.7% of the population.
Thai culture has been reformed by many influences, including of Lao, Burmese,India,China, Combodia and rest of Southern Asia. The official calender of Thailand is based on the eastern version of the Buddhist Era(BE), which 543 years ahead of the Gregorian calendar. Such as- the year 2014 is 2557 Be in Thailand.Overseas Chinese successful integration into Thai society has allowed for this group to hold positions of economics and political power.Thai has been influenced by its widely available multi language and press. It is the largest newspaper market of South Asia.Thai boxing is the national sport . Traditional women’s costume is a Pha Nung,a sin or a Chong kraben as a lower body wear,a blouse,and optionally a sabai worn on the left shoulder as an upper body wear. Traditional men’s costume is Chong Kraben or Pants as a lower body wear, a Nehru -style jacket and optionally knee -length white socks and a sabai won on the left shoulders as an upper body wear.
Monarchy, modern archacological evidence suggest that the Indochina peninsula had been a home to various indigenous armistic communities for as for back as 500,000 years ago. There are myriad sites in Thailand dating to the Bronge (1500BC-500BC) And Iron ages (500BC-500AD). Around the 1st century AD, According to the records of Chinese historians a number of trading settlements of the south appear to have been organized into several malay states.
Some trading settlements show evidence of Roman trade: a Roman gold coin showing Roman emperor Antoninus pius (161AD) has been found in southern Thailend.Then, the region hosted a number of indigenous Mon khner and Malay civilizations. Similar to other regions in southeast Asia, Thailend was heavily influenced by the culture and religions of India starting with the kingdom of Funan around the 1st century CE to the khner Empire. Indian influence on Siamese culture was partly the result of direct contact with Indian settlers but mainly it was brought abut indirectly via the Indianized kingdom of Dvaravati, srivijovya and Cambodia.Latter Thailand was influenced by the south Indian pallava dynasty and north Indian Gupta empire. Significant numbers of Austro-Thai peoples in southern china or northern Vietnam probably began migrating south ward and westward in small groups as early as the 8th century AD most certainly by the 10th century. These migrant Thais established local polities along traditional social schemata according to meuung (roughly principality or city state under the rule of chieftains or sovereigns, starting with sukhothai, Chaiang saen a chiang Mai, Lanna kingdom and then ayuthaya kingdom.
Thai city states gradually become independent from the weakened khmer Empire.It is said that sukhothai was established as a sovereign, strong kingdom by pho khun si Indrathit in 1238 AD. The Ayutthaya period is known as “Golden age of medicine in Thailand” due to progress in the field of medicine at that time Ayutthaya’s culture and traditions became the model for the next period in Thai history.
After more than 400 years of power, in 1767, the kingdom of Ayottaya was brought down by invading Burmese armies, its capital burned, and the territory split. General Taskim managed to reunite the Thai kingdom from his new capital of Thanburi and declared himself king in 1769.general chakri succeeded him as Rama 1, the first king of the chakri dynasty.
The heirs of Rama 1 became increasingly concerned with the threat of European colonialism after British victories in neighboring Burma.in 1826.The first Thai recognition of western power in the region was the Burmey Treaty with the United kingdom in 1826.In 1893, united states diplomatist Edmund Roberts exchanged a treaty with siam, updated in 1856, 1949 and 1949 Numerous treaties with foreign power were signed during the regions of king Mongkut (1804-1668), and his son king chulalongkorn (1853-1910). It is a widely held view in Thailand that the diplomatic skills of these monarchs, combined with the modernizing reforms of Thai government, made siam the only country in south-east Asia to avoid European colonization. Because, the French and English decided it would be a neutral territory to avoid Conflicts between their colonies.
After the end of the absolute monarchy in 1932, Thailand entered sixty years of almost permanent military rule before the establishment of a democratically elected government system.Thailand has been an active member in the regional Association of southeast Asean Nations (ASEAN) especially after democratic rule was restored.
On 27 sept 1997, the Thai parliament voted a new constitution, Thailand’s 16th since 1932 and the first to be decreed by a civilian govt. known as rathathamanun prachaachon (people’s constitution) it put new neehanisms in place to monitor the conduct of elected officials and political candidates and to protect civil rights achieving many of the aims of the predemocracy movement.
Thailand experienced rapid economic growth between 1965 to 1976, becoming a newly industrialized country and a major exporter. Manufacturing, agriculture and tourism are leading sectors of the economy. Among the ten ASEAN countries, Thailand ranked second in the best quality of life in ASEAN. Its large population and growing economic influence have made it a middle power in the region and around the word.