Algeria

Brief Description:

Algeria is the largest country in  the continent of Africa.  Algeria, officially the peoples Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.Its capital and most populous city is Algiers.With a total area of 2,381,741 km, Algeria is the tenth largest country in the world and the largest in Arica and in the Mediterranean.The official language is Arabic and the currency name is Dinar.Islam is the primary religion which is followed by 98% of the population.1st November is the country’s national day. Algeria is an authoritarian regime.

Government System:

The government system of Algeria is Unitary semi-presidential republic. The president of Alger is Abdelaziz Bouteflika who is the 5th President of Algeria. The name of Prime Minister of Algeria is  Smail Hamdani who is serving from April 2014.

Area:

Algeria is the 10th largest country in the world. The total area of Algeria is 2,381,741 square kilometer. In the Africa and  Mediterranean Algeria is the largest country. The country is bordered in the northeast by Tunisia, in the east by Libya, in the west by Morocco, in the southwest by Western Sahara, Mauritania, and Mali, in the southeast by Niger, and in the north by the Mediterranean Sea.

Population:

In 2014 the total population of Algeria is estimated about 38,700,000. The census of 2013 its total population was 37,900,000. Algeria 34 largest populated country in the world. The density of Algeria is 15.9 square kilometer.

GDP:

The total GDP of Algeria is 302.476 billion Dollar. Per capita GDP is 7,816 Dollar. The total nominal GDP of Algeria is 219.453 billion Dollar. And the per capita nominal GDP is  5,670 us Dollar.

Religion:

Algeria is the Islamic country. More than 97% people of Algeria are Muslim and 1.8% people are Christian.

Brief History:

Early inhabitants of the central maghrib left behind significant remains including remnants of hominid occupation from ea 200,000 B.C found near soida.Neolithic civilization (marked by animal domestication and subsistence agriculture) developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean maghrib between 6000 and 2000 B.C. During the classical period, the amalgam of peoples of North Africa coalesced eventually into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers.

Berber civilization was already at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing, trade and political arganization supported several states.The Berbers lacked a written language and hence tended to be over looked or marginalized in historical accounts.

Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire in A.D. 24. Christianity arrived in the second century.By the end of the 4th century, the settled areas had become christianized and some Berber tribes had converted en masse.

The first Arab military expiditions into the Maghrib , between 642 and 699 resulted in the spreed of Islam. Maghrib was ruled by several Arab dynersties including Arab Umayyads, Arab Fatima’s. following a large incursion of Arab bedouing from Egypt beginning in the first half of the country side, and sedentary Berbers were gradually Arabized.

By 1106, the Almoravid (those who have made a religious retreat) had conquered Morocco, the Maghrib as for east as Algiers and spain up to the Ebro River.The Almohads (Unitarians) took control of Morocco by 1146, captured Algiers around 1151, and by 1160 had completed the conquest of the central Maghrib.Like the Almoravids, the Almohads found their inspiration in Islamic reform.

The region came under Ottoman Empire in the sixteenth century. Befor the arrival of the French, Algeria was known to Europeans as the Barbary (a corruption of Berber). Coast, whose nortorious pirates preyed on Christian shipping. The dreaded khayr al-din, going under the chilling pseudonym of Barbarossa was the first regent of Algiers during this period, and at one point held no fewer than 25,00 christian captives in the city.

The feared pirates were not entirely beaten until the French attacked Algiers in 1830 and forced the ruling governor to capitulate. It took another 41 years for French domination of the country to be complete.

The French colonial authorities set about changing the face of Algeria by eliminating anything that was previously thought of as Algerian.Local culture was destroyed, mosques were converted into churches and the old medians were pulled down and replaced with streets laid out in neet grids. The greatest symbol of the change was the conversion of the great Mosque of Algiers to the cathedral of st philippe.

Algeria’s war of independence, led by newly formed front de liberation Nationale(FLN), began on 31 Oct, 1954in Batna, east of Algiers. The fighting lasted seven years costing at least a million Algeria lives.As a result independence of Algeria was declared on 5 july 1962.

FLN candidate Ahmed ben Bella became Algeria’s first president.He pledged to create a revolutionary Arab Islamic state based on the principles of socialism and collective leadership at home and anti-imperialism abroad; He was overthrown in 1965 by colonel Houari Boumediann.

Boumedienne’s emphasis on industrial development at the expense of the agricultural sector was to have a major impact in latter years, when the country became heavily dependent on food imports and migrant workers.In 1978,FLN replaced him with colonel chadi Benjedid, who was re elected in 1984 and 1989.

There was very little political change under Boumedinne and chadli; The FLN was the sole political party, pursuing basically securdar socialist policies. There was little evidence of opposition until 1988, when thousands of people took to the streets in protest against government austerity measures and food shortage.The army was called to restore order and between 160 and 600 people were killed.

The government reacted by pledging to relax the FLN monopoly on political power and work towards a multiparty system.In local government elections held in 1990, front Islamic du salut (FIS) won a land slide victory.In first Algeria’s multiparty parliamentary elections held in Dec.1991, FIS won another victory.

A civil war started in 1992.The FIS, denied a legitimate role in the nations affairs, spawns a military wing the AIS (Islamic Salvation Army). More extreme querrilla group energes in the Muslim cause the GIS ( Armed Islamic Group). Mean while, on the govt. side , power now rests entirely with a group of generals. Atorcities of a particular bruta kind were committed by both sides.There were occasional attempts at a return to democracy.

In the subsequent election held in April 1999, Abdel-Aziz Bouteflika became the president. He has been the president of Algeria since then and has won four consecutive elections. However, according to the Democracy Index Algeria is an authoritarian regime.

Algeria’s economy is largely based on hydrocarbons, due to which manufacturing has suffered from Dutch disease. The country supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe and energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has 17th largest. Reserves of oil in the world and second largest in Africa while it has the 9th largest reserves of natural gas.

Algeria has the second largest military in North Africa with the largest defense budget in Africa. Algeria had a peaceful nuclear program since the 1990s. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab league, OPEC and United Nations. It is a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union.

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