Vietnam

Brief Description:
Vietnam occupies the eastern and southern part of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.Officially Vietnam is said Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam . It is a communist state.

Area:

Vietnam is situated in Southern Asia.The  total area is 3,31,210 square kilometer and water surface  is 6.4%. Bordering with the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin,  Cambodia 1,228 km, China 1,281 km, Laos 2,130 km

Population:

On the eastern tip of the Indo-China peninsula in south east Asia, Vietnam is one of the larger and more densely populated countries in the region. An estimate puts the Vietnam population in 2014 at 92,948,278  and this impressive figure would make the country the 14th most populous on the planet.  In comparison, Vietnam has a small surface area, and at 331,210 square kilometers (128,565 square miles), this is only the world’s 65th largest in terms of land mass alone.These single  set of figures would suggest a densely populated landscape and that is the case to an extent. For every square kilometre of land, there is an average of 280.6 people. That number converts to 723 per square mile and overall, this becomes the 46th most densely populated country on earth.

Largest cities:

Ho Chi Minh, Ha Noi,Hai Phong, Can tho, Da Nagn are the largest city of it.

Monetary unit:

Dhong is the monetary unit of Vietnam.

Languages :

Almost all people in Vietnam speak Vietnamese  language (tiếng Việt). This is the official language of the country.

The majority of Vietnamese population (around 90%) speak this language as native, however, the other 10% only speak Vietnamese as a second language. Vietnam is ethnically diverse country, and it has various minority groups, living, mostly, in mountainous regions in the north of the country and in the Central Highlands region. Each minority group speaks their own, and distinct from others, language. From the linguistic point of view, most of these minority languages are not related to Vietnamese at all.

The largest minority groups in Vietnam include those speaking Chinese, Tay, Muong, Hmong. Each of these languages has at least several hundred thousands of native speakers. Dozens of other languages are also spoken among the indigenous ethnic groups in Vietnam – Khmer, Cham and Jarai languages among many others.

Religion :

Religion has exerted a deep influence on Vietnamese culture and the Vietnamese concept of life. The attitude towards life, death, and the world beyond bears a deep imprint of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism.

The predominant religion in Vietnam is Buddhism, which is also on of the world’s great religions. Buddhism was introduced into Vietnam under the Chinese domination, in the second century B.C., by Chinese immigrants and by Indian preachers coming by sea. Buddhism became the state religion of Vietnam under Ly Dynasty (1010-1214). Several kings took the cassock or retired into a pagoda after their abdication. Buddhist monks served as counselors to the king at court. Since the Tran Dynasty (1225-1440), Buddhism has lost the status of a state religion but nevertheless remained the dominant religion in Vietnam and a major cultural force.

GDP/PPP :

According to the estimate of , the total GDP is $ 358.899 billion and per capita is $ 4,001.286.The nominal GDp is $ 170.02billion  and per capita is $1895.576.

Culture:

Vietnamese culture is one of the oldest in South Asia, the ancient Bronze Age Dong Son Culture is considered to be one of its most important progenitors.Vietnamese culture may be still mysterious and unknown to most people outside the country. Due to 1000 years Chinese Rule, Vietnam culture is influenced by Chinese culture in terms of politics, government and confucian social and moral ethics, Vietnam is considered to be part of the East Asia.

The “ao dai” (“flowing tunic”) has been the traditional dress for Vietnamese women long, long ago. There are many different kinds of ao dai: the four-part flowing tunic had two equal front flaps that women tied together, while the five-part flowing tunic had an additional small front flap that buttoned up onto the right side of the dress.

Different regions of the country have their own styles of flowing tunic. In the north, Vietnamese women usually wear the four-part flowing tunic, refers to as “Ao Tu Than”, with a long skirt. The hat is called “Non Quai Thao”.

On the right, instead of wearing “non quai thao”, Nothern women just simply wear a scarf as a variety.

Men once wear a variation of the ao dai with shorter and fuller tunic. Today, men generally wear it for traditional dance or music performance during ceremonial occasions.

Traditional Vietnamese dances such as fan dance, lantern dance and dragon dance, etc.

Brief history:
The Vietnamese are descendants of nomadic Mongols from China and migrants from Indonesia. According to mythology, the first ruler of Vietnam was Hung Vuong , who founded the nation in 2879 B.C China ruled the nation then know as Nam Viet as a vassal state from 111 B.C. Until the 15th century, an era of nationalistic expansion, when Cambodians were pushed out of the southern area of what is now Vietnam . In the following centuries , large numbers of Chinese settlers, officials and scholars moved south to impose a centralized state system on the Vietnamese. During this era Vietnam was a key port of call on the sea route between china and India . The early Vietnamese learned much more from the Chinese, including the construction of dikes and irrigation works .This innovations helped make rice the ‘staff of like’ and paddy agriculture remains the foundation of the Vietnamese way of life to this day. In 1516 the Portuguese were the first Europeans to enter the area .During the following decades the Portuguese began to trade with Vietnam ,setting up a commercial colony alongside those of the Japanese and Chinese at Faifo . French established its influence in the 19th century and within 80 years it conquest the three regions into ahich the country was then divided-Cochin China in the south ,Annam in the central region and Tonkin in the North . France first unified Vietnam in 1887, when a single governor generalship was created, followed by the first physical links between north and south a rail and road system . The imposition of French colonial rule had ret with little organized resistance. By the early 1920 s, nationalist parties began to demand reform and independence. In 1930 the revolutionary Ho chi Minh formed an Indo Chinese Communist party. Until WWII started in 1939, such groups laboured without success. When the Japanese surrendered to the Allies in august 1945, Vietnam forces arose throughout Vietnam and declared the establishment of an independent republic in Hanoi. The French had managed to regain control of Vietnam , at least in name through the Franco-Viet Minh war. After eight years of fighting , the viet Minh controlled much of Vietnam and neighboring Laos. In 1954, The Geneva conference opened to negotiate an end to the conflict. They divided the country at the 17th parallel, with the Vietminh in the north and the French and their Vietnamese supporters in the south. To avoid permanent partition, a political protocol was dream up, calling for national elections to reunify the country two years after the singing of the treaty . After Geneva, the Vietminh in Hanoi refrained from armed struggle and began to build a communist society. The south was ruled by a government led by Ngo Dinh Diem, a fiercely anticommunist catholic.Nationwide elections were never held , as the Americans rightly feared that HGo chi Minh would win with a massive majority . The campaign to liberate the south was rocked by anti-Diem unrest led by university students and Buddhist clergy. The communists decided it was time to resume their revolutionary war . In the fall of 1963,Diem was over thrown and killed in a coup lauched by his own generals . Skirmishing grew into a full scale war , with escalating U.S. involvement. In 1972, secret peace negotiations led by secretary of state Henry A. Kissinger took place, and a peace settlement was signed in Paris on lamary 27, 1973. By April 9, 1975, ending a war that claimed the lives of 1.3 million Vietnamese and 58000 Americans .
In 1976, The south was reunited with the North in a new socialist Republic of Vietnam. In 1977, border clashes between Vietnam and Cambodia intensified . Beijing cut off all aid and withdrew 800 technicians Vietnamese troops began limited withdrawals from laos and Cambodian in 1988, and Vietnam supported the Cambodia in 1988, and Vietnam supported the Cambodian peace agreement signed in October 1991. Within Vietnam ,postwar economic and social problems were severe and reconstruction proceeded slowly. In the early 1990s the government ended price controls on most agricultural production, encouraged foreign investment and sought to improve its foreign relation with china .In 1992 , Vietnam signed a 1976 ASEAN agreement on regional amity and co-operation, regarded as the first step toward ASEA member ship and it established diplomatic relation with south Korea.
In November 2001, Vietnam’s national assembly approved a trade agreement that opened U.S markets to vietnam’s largest trading partner , buying about $7 billion in Vietnamese goods every year. Vietnam became the 150th member of the world trade organization in January 2007, after waiting 12 years to join the group.

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