Uruguay

Brief Description:

Uruguay is situated in South America. The capital city of the country is Montevideo. The total area of land is 176200 square kilometers. The total population of the country is 3400000.The official language is Spanish. The literacy rate is 98%.

Area: 

173,620 km2 (67,035 sq mi) and a water area of 2,600 km2 (1,004 sq mi).

Population:

-2013 estimate 3,324,460

-2011  census 3,286,214

-density  18.87/km2

Largest cities:

Montevideo ,Salto , Ciudad de la costa , Paysandu , Las piedras , Rivera , Maldonado , Tacuarembo , Melo , Mercedes

National name:

Oriental Republic of Uruguay.

Languages :Uruguayan Spanish has some modifications due to the considerable number of Italian immigrants  Immigrants used to speak a mixture of Italian and Spanish known as ‘cocoliche’ and some of the words are still commonly used by the population. As is the case with neighboring Argentina, Uruguay employs both voseo and yeismo. English is common in the business world and its study has risen significantly in recent years, especially among the young. Other languages include Portuguese and portunoi  (a mixture of Spanish and Portuguese). Both are spoken in the northern regions near the Brazilian border. As few native people exist in the population, no indigenous languages are thought to remain in Uruguay

Capital:

Montevideo

Religion :

Uruguay has no official religion; church and state are officially separated, and religious freedom  is guaranteed. A 2008 survey by the INF of Uruguay showed Catholicism as the main religion, with 45.7% of the population; 9.0% are non-Catholic Christians, 0.6% are Animists or umbandist, and 0.4% Jewish. 30.1% reported believing in a god, but not belonging to any religion, while 14% were Atheist or Agnostic.Among the sizable Armenian  community in Montevideo, the dominant religion is Christianity, specifically Armenian Apostolic.

Currency:

Uruguayan peso(UYU)

GDP/PPP :

-2014 estimate  3,324,460

-per capital $17,121

Brief History:

Uruguay was discovered by Spaniard in 1516.It was populated then by groups of Indians living in primitive conditions. The conquistador imported cattle. The Spanish founded Montevideo in the early 18th century. The move to freedom started in the early 19th century. Uruguay started to revolt against Spain in 1811 by Jose Gervasio Artigas. He formed the federal league in 1814.

The Portuguese government was frightened with the steady growth of influence and prestige of the federal league. It did not want the league’s republicanism to spread to the adjoining Portuguese colony of Brazil .The thirty-three Orientals declared the freedom of the present day Argentina in 1825.The 500 day was the outcome of the incident.Uruguay came out in 1828 by the treaty of Monteuideo, fostered by Britain.

There were two political parties, the conservative Blancos and the liberal colorados. Fructuoso Rivera was the leader of the colorados and Manuel oribe of the Blancos.The exiled Argentinian liberal Unitarios were favored by the Colorados and Oribe was a close friend of the Argenline governor Juan Manuel de Rosas .With Rosas’s defeat and exile ‘Guerra Grande’ finally came to an end and slavery was abolished in 1852.

There was rise of immigrants especially from Italy and Spain. The first bank of Uruguay was established in 1857.There years later, rail links were set up between the capital and the countryside. There was development in economic sector specially in livestock raising and export. That was possible only for improved methods of husbandry introduced by European immigrant, Montevideo became an entrepot for goods from Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay.

Jose Batlley Ordonez’s two times rule set the pattern for Uruguay’s modern political development. He established welfare program, government participation in many facets of the country.His successors also continued these reforms .Uruguays infant mortality was lowest among the world’s other country for its healthy population.Uruguay was against Germany in the World War I and as a result, diplomatic relations were broken off.it did not participate in the combat operations.The first football world cup was held in Uruguay.

There was economic problem like inflation, mass unemployment and a steep drop in the standard of living for Uruguayan in the late 1950s.This caused student militancy and labor unrest. Tupamaros, an urban guerrilla movement, was formed in the early 1960s and.It would rob banks and distribute the money to the poor.They also kidnapped the political person .They were successful at first.

The Army of the country succeeded in defeating Tupamasos. The military seized the power in 1973.Uruguay had the highest per capita percentage of political prisoners in the world for torture by the military. General Gregorio Alvarez reized the power of presidency in 1981.There were massive protests against dictatorship in 1984.so the armed forces announced a plan for civilian rule.

Luis Alberto Lacalle won the 1989 presidential election and served from 1990 to 1995.There was a new electoral system established by a 1996 constitutional amendment .A new national election were held by the new system.

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