Syria

Brief Description: 

Syria is situated in Asia. It’s total area of land is 185,180 square km. The total population is 20800000.The official language is Arabic.The literacy rate is 83% .It gained independence of UN in 1945. The currency is Syrian pound.

Area:

total area about 185,180 square kilometers.Bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

Government System:

Unitary dominant party semi presidential republic.

Population:

Total population  of Syria  about 17,951,639.

Largest cities:

Aleppo, Damascus, Daraa, Homs, Hama, Al Hasaka.

Monetary unit:

Syrian Pound.

National name:

The Syrian Arab Republic.

Languages :

Arabic is the official language of the country of Syria. There are many variations of the language depending on which area it is spoken. In Syria, the Syrian Arabic is the most widely spoken language. It is spoken by almost 90% of the population in the country. It spread in Syria during the 17th century when the Muslims inhabited the country. Arabic words are written from right to left which is different from the western writing style. However, the Hindi Numerals or Arabic numbers are written from left to right and the units are written on the far right. The Arabic language is also related to the Hebrew and Aramean languages.

Aside from Arabic, there are many other languages spoken in the country. In the Kurdish regions of the country, majority of the people speak Kurdish. Kurdish is spoken by 6% of the country’s population. Other languages include Armenian and Turkish with about 5% of the population speaking the languages.

There are 17 listed individual languages in Syria, one is already a dead language. These languages are: Mesopotamian Arabic, Najdi Arabic, Standard Arabic, North Mesopotamian Arabic, North Levantine Arabic, Azerbaijani, Armenian, Assyrian, Kabardian, Turoyo, Domari, Lomavren, and Western Neo-Aramaic. Of all these languages, the Modern Standard Arabic is the language spoken and understood by all Arab nations who make use of the language.

English and French languages are also spoken by some Syrians.

Religion :

As 2006, Muslims were as constituting 87% to 90% (depending on whether Druze were included or not)[1] of the total population, although their proportion was possibly greater and was certainly growing. The Muslim birthrate reportedly was higher than that of the minorities, and proportionately fewer Muslims were emigrates. 64% were Sunnis (including Sufis), whereas 21% were Shias, either Alawites (18.0%) from which about 2% are called Mershdis and they are the followers of Sulayman al-Murshid, Twelvers (3%), or Ismailis (0.1%).[1] 5% were Druze,[1] while the remaining 10-15% were Christians.Not all the Sunnis are Arabs. Most of the Kurds, who make up less than 4% of the population[3 are officially Sunni, as are the Turkmens who encompass 1%.

GDP/PPP :

As 2012, the total GDP is $107.831  billion and per capita is $ 5,100.

Brief History: 
Syria’s original civilization is one of the most ancient on earth. The oldest ever excavated, Ebla,is in Syria where people spoke the oldest known written language Syria is also significant for Christian Church history. Paul the Apostle was an important figure in Atioch . Around 395CE, after the decline of Roman Empire Syria was was included as a part of eastern half, known as the Byzantine Empire .Mulim Arales conquered it after several hundred years and transferred the power to the Islamic Empire. The capital city of the empire was Damascus and it was prosperous.Christians lived there peacefully and was held in government posts also.
Syrian territory weakened because of the movement of the capital city to Baghdad in 750. So, there was turmdil between the Handanids. Byzantines and Fatimids to rule the area.Eventually Seljuk Turks and then the Ayybed dynasty conquered Syria in 1185.Ottoman Empire conquered Syria in 1516 and remind as part till 1918. Modern-day Syria,labanon,Israel Jordan,Palestine Authority,Gaza Strip,and parts of Turkey and Iraq constituted Syrian territory.
King Faysal of the Hashemite family,who later became king of Iraq ,established and independent Arab kingdom of Syria in 1970.But it ended after a few month for a clash between his Syrian Arab forces and regular French forces. Syria was occupied by French troops. Syria came under Victory Government in 1940 for fall of France . French troops were withdrawn from Syria in 1946. There was rapid economic growth after the liberation in 1946 in Syria.
There were a series of military coups beginning in 1949 and colonel Adib Shishakli seized the power. Again after a cup Arab nationalist and socialist movement got the power.Arab socialist Resurrection party (B’ath party) had been active 8 in Syria. Since the late 1940s British and free French troops occupied Syria in 1941.The French mandate was promised to end by General De Gaulle.There were protests over the slow pace of French withdrawal.
So, the French troops started to leave the region.The last French troops left Syria in 1946. In 1947 Baath party was established by Michel Aflaq and Salah-al-Din al-Bitar.In the third military coup in the space of a year.Army officer Adib al-Shishakhli seized power in 1949.He dissolved all poitical parties. There was a coup against Al-Shishakhli and a civilian government returned to power .Syria tried to make a good and closer tice with Egypt. Seizing power by army Al Hafez become president.
Hafez Al Assad became defense minister in 1966. Assad over threw the president Nur Al-Din al-Atani and imprisoned Salah jaded .Assad became elected president for a seven year term in a plebiscite in 1971.There was a riot when Assad declared that the president must a Muslim and it was included in constitution. The riots were suppressed by army.There was a war between Israel and Syria to retake the Golan Heights but failed.

Muslim Brotherhood tried to assassinate assad in 1980.At present there is a political turmoil in Syria. Assad force is suppressing opposition party.

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