Switzerland

Brief Description

Switzerland is the European country. Officially is called Swiss Confederation.the total population is 8 million. Officially Switzerland uses 4 languages that are German, French, Italian and Romansh. The government system of Switzerland is directorial federal parliamentary republic with elements of direct democracy. The Per Capita GDP is 45,417 dollar.

Area:

The total area of Switzerland is 41,285 square kilometer.Switzerland is a small, landlocked country in the heart of Europe. The country is situated in Western and Central Europe,where it is bordered by ,France to the west, Italy to the south, Germany to the north, and  Austria and Liectenstein to the east.

Government System:

A fedarel parliamentary republic.

Rivers:

The rivers of Switzerland lead to three different seas: The Rhein with its tributaries Aare and Thur drains 67.7% of the water into the North Sea. The Rhone and the Ticino (a tributary to the river Po in Italy) drain 18% into the Mediterranean Sea. The Inn (a tributary to the river Donau in Germany/Austria) drains 4.4% into the Black Sea.

Population:

According to the estimate of 2012, the total population is about 8,014,000 and density is 188 per square kilometer.

Monetary unit:

Swiss france.

National name:

The Swiss Confederation.

Languages :

It has four national languages: French, German, Italian and Romansh. English, though not an official language, is often used to bridge the divides.

German is spoken by about 64 per cent, French by about 20 per cent, Italian by about seven per cent. Romansh is spoken by less than one per cent of the total population.

The most notable linguistic fact about German-speaking Switzerland is the use of dialect for spoken communication and standard German for written communication. French is spoken in the west of the country, while Italian is spoken in Ticino and the south of neighbouring Graubünden, and Romansh is spoken only in Graubünden. However, there are language minorities from elsewhere in all the major cities.

Religion:

estimate of 2012 Christianity is the predominant religion of Switzerland, divided between the Catholic Church (38.2% of the population), the Swiss Reformed Church (26.9%) and other Christian denominations (5.7%).

The traditional religion of Switzerland as a central European country is christianity. During the reformation  several Swiss reformers preached their new interpretation of the christian faith: Huldrych Zwingli and his successor Heinrich [Henry] Bullinger in Zurich (1523) and northern Switzerland, Johannes Oekolampadius in Basel, Guillaume Farel in western Switzerland (1526) and finally John Calvin in Geneva (1536). While Zwingli is by far the most influential of the reformers within Switzerland, Calvin is certainly better known abroad.

GDP/PPP :

Its total GDP is $ 385.333 billion and per capita is $ 47,863. The nominal GDP is $ 693.532 billionand per capita is $ 86,145.

Brief History:
Switzerland is the old country. Before 15000 thousand years ago people started to live here. At fist people continued their live by farming and fishing. Switzer is covered by mountain. Some people were doing business in Europe and use the route of Switzerland. For the facilities of business routes they also started to live here. During the 1s century BC to 4th century BC Switzerland was the province of Roman Rule. Under the roman’s rule Switzerland people was familiar with business. Romans connected the Switzerland between Roman and northern tribes. For this reason Switzerland’s business grew more rapidly.
In the time of 5th century Alemenni and Burgundians came to Switzerland and defeated the roman’s rule. In this time Switzerlan was divided between North and West. The North side was ruled by Alemenni and the West side was ruled by Burgundians  In the 12th century, the dukes of Zähringen were given authority over part of the Burgundy territories which covered the western part of modern Switzerland. Fearful of the popular disturbances flaring up following the death of the Holy Roman Emperor in 1291, the ruling families from Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden signed a charter to keep public peace and pledging mutual support in upholding autonomous administrative and judicial rule. Now the 1s August is celebrated as the National Day of Switzerland which was 1st August in 1291. In1264 AD the Kyburg dynasty fell down and the Holy Roman Emperor extended their territory to the eastern Switzerland.
Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden become united in the last of 13th century and to defeat the Habsburg. This is considered to be the foundation of the Swiss Confederacy. In this time Canton also jointed with these three Swiss Confederacy and defeated the Habsburg. In 1515 French coalition attacked the Swiss Confedency and defeated them. This war is called the Battle of Marignan. In1523 Reformation in Switzerland began by the Huldrych Zwingli. During the Thirty Years’ War, Switzerland was a relative “oasis of peace and prosperity” (Grimmelshausen) in war-torn Europe, mostly because all major powers in Europe depended on Swiss mercenaries, and would not let Switzerland fall into the hands of one of their rivals. In 1648 Switzerland got the legal independence from the Holy Roman Empire by the Treaty of Westphalia.
In the time of Napoleons’ rule (1797-98) Switzerland was replaced the loose Confederation. In 1815 the Congress of Vienna re-established the old confederation. In the 19th century industry revolution was held in Switzerland and become the leading industrialized country in Europe. During the 1st world war Switzerland tried to be neutral. But they affected by the 1st World war. After the world war they recovered the broken economy by the hard work. In 1920, Switzerland joined the League of Nations, which was based in Geneva, on the condition that it was exempt from any military requirements. During the 2nd World War Switzerland made good relation with Germany and also a strong group of army. Though Switzerland was able to make good relation with Germany but was also neutral as like as the 1st World War.

In 1959 Switzerland approved the voting right of women. After getting the voting rights women involved in politics. In 1963 Switzerland jointed the Council of Europe. Though in 1959 women of Switzerland got the voting right but practically in 1971 they got voting rights. In 1979, parts of the canton of Bern attained independence, forming the new canton of Jura. In 1992 Switzerland joined the Bretton Woods institutions. Switzerland remained neutral by not joining the United Nation. But in 2002 Switzerland joined the United Nation by the voting agreement of the Swiss people. Switzerland did not join the European Union. In the time of the formation of European Union Switzerland helped them. Now Switzerland is the sign of peace country in the world.

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