Poland

Brief Description:

Poland is a developed country. Its area is 312685 square kilometers. The total population of the land is about 38000000. The national language is polish. The government name of the country is Republic of Poland. It’s capital city is Warsaw. Zero population growth rate is reigning here.

Area:

Total area is 312,679 square kilometer. It is bordered by the the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south;Germany to the west;  Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.

Government System:

Parliamentary Republic.

Population:

The total population is about 38,502,396 and density is 120 per square kilometer.

Largest cities:

Monetary unit:

Zoty

National name:

The Republic of Poland.

Languages :

The official language is Polish which is a Lechitic language spoken by native speakers in Poland as well as abroad. A regional language in Poland is Kashubian used by a particular indigenous ethnic group.  Minority languages in Poland are Belarusan, Czech, Lithuanian, German, Slovak, Russian, Ukrainian and Yiddish. There are also diaspora languages used by ethnic groups not possessing their territory in Europe, such as Yiddish, Romani, Karaim, Grabar (Old Armenian) and Tatar. The main immigrant languages include Czech, Eastern Yiddish, Greek, Lithuanian, Russian and Slovak. The main foreign languages spoken by Poles are English, Russian and German.

Religion :

Majority of the population of Poland  is Christan with 86.7% to 91% of the population belonging to the Roman Catholic Church.

Literacy rate:

The literacy rate in Poland is 99.7% with a rank of 23 out of 194.

GDP/PPP :

Total GDP is $ 813.988 billion and per capita is $ 21,111. The nominal GDP is $ 513,934 billion and per capita is $ 13,334.

Brief History:
Poland is a paradise for the tourist to spend his/her holiday.In 966 Western European came Poland and It adopted latin alphabet . The German Emperor Otho III came to Gniezno, capital of the country, on a pilgrimage to St Wojciech’s grave . The king’s wish was to unite Christian world, Incheding Poland. Boleslaus the Brave became the first king of Poland a quarter of a century after that event in 1025. The growth of towns and the settlement of religious orders, Poland saw economic and cultured development. The founders of the Polish state, The piast Dynasty, ruled until 14th century. The last piast, Casmirus, left Poland a powerful Central European country.Poland and Great Lithuanian Duchy were united.The union was concluded in 1569. The Jagiellonian epoch was known as Golden Age University of Cracow,one of the first in Europe, was established in 1364. There was a noble democracy in Poland in the 14th century. In the 16th century Different faiths, protestant, Catholic etc. co-existed peacefully. For changes in foreign policy, The capital was shifted from Cracow to Warsaw in the 17th century. The gentry of Poland developed an ideology ‘ Wall of Christainity’ to protect the country from threat of the east .Poland Ceased to be a European power in the 18th century. In 1791 a constitution was enacted by seym to reform and to modernize the country in the soirit of Englightenment .Poland disappeared from the map of Europe for about 100 years. It re-entered the map of Europe as soverign state in 1918. After more than a century of partition, Poland reunited in 1920s and 1930s .

In the second World War Poland was attacked by Germany and was divided by Germany and USSR. Thousands of polish soldiers and policemen were killed in Soviet camps. Poland was the first target of World War II. At the yalta conference, Poland was relegaled to a state of Soviet dependence. In 1980s, a movement ‘solidarity’ was born. As a result in 1981 martial law was introduced in Poland .In 1988 the Government decided to start a dialogue with the opposition. In  1989 non fully parliamentary elections were held and the opposition took part . Tadeusz Mazowiecki was elected prime minister and ‘Solidarity’ led government was formed . As a result, there were collapse of USSR, fall of the Berlin Wall, the end of the cold war and Poland’s reunion with the democratic world. Poland is now a democratic country ,with pluralistic party and bicameral parliament . Constitution is the supreme act, established by a national referendum in 1997. The bicameral parliament is elected every four years. The supreme power lies in the hands of the president and the cabinet. The presidents office was restored as head of state in 1989. Prime minister and other ministers are appointed by the president.

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