Panama

Brief Description:

Panama is a North American country. Its total area of land is 75,517 square km. Total population of the country is 35,00,000. The rate of literacy is 93%. It gained independence in 182%.It got the membership of UN in 1945.

Area:

Its total area is 75,517  square kilometer.Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

Government System:

Unitary Presidential Constitutional Republic.

Capital:

Panama city

Population:

As July 2014,its total population about 3,608,431.

Monetary unit:

United State Dollar (PAB,USD).

National name:

The Republic of Panama.

Languages :

Official language is Spanish and national language of Panama, which is spoken by more than two million of the population. English ranks as the second language spoken by about 14% of the inhabitants. As the language to people of Panamanian descent in other countries, including the United States, Spanish bears some similarities with Central American and Caribbean Spanish variants. the influence brought about by the close historical ties between the US and Panama, highlighted by the US administration of the Panama Canal Zone for many years, and the military installations in the country until the 1990s. Spanish is also taught in many language schools in three levels of instruction such as beginner to intermediate, individual or class instruction with two to four students.

Religion :

The main religion in Panama is Roman Catholic with 84% of the population which is probably because Panama has very Spanish culture.

15 % of the population is Protestant.  The last 1% consists of other religions including tribal religions from the native tribes.  The Roman Catholic religion is recognized in the Constitution which states that lessons should be taught in public schools.  This is only a suggestion and is not mandatory though.  This is because Panama has freedom of religion and is very accepting of other beliefs.

Literacy rate:

The rate of literacy is 93%.

GDP/PPP :

As 2013, Total GDP  $61.540 billion and per capita $ 16,539.

 

Brief History:
Spanish explorer Rodrigo de Bastidas discovered Panama in 1501 and after that the isthmus started to see the beginning of the age of conquest and colonization. Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovered the Pacific ocean 12 years later. Columbus tried to establish a colony at the mouth of the Rio Belen due to fierce local resistance. But he appointed as governor of Veraguas.king Ferdinand appointed Diego de Nicuesa to settle the newly claimed land after the death of Columbus in 1506.However Nicuesa was forced to flee the area by local resistance . A Spanish explorer called Balboa heard rumors about a large sea and a wealthy , gold producing civilization across the mountains of the isthmus and scaled the continental Divide and became the first European to set upon the Pacific ocean.
Near todays Panama city , a cruet and Vindictive Spaniard named Pedro Arias de Avila founded the city of panama on the pacific side in 1519.Pedrarias established panama as an Important Spanish settlement, a commercial center and base for further explorations, including the conquest of Perce. Vast riches from panama were transported across the isthmus by foot to the town and then by boat. Seeing the Spaniard’s fat and content on the wealth of plundered civilizations, sir Francis Drake destroyed Nombre de Dios in 1572.
Burning the panama to the ground the Spanish rebuilt the city a few years later. A treaty was signed between Spain and France in 1807, defining the occupation of Portugal . Napoleon invaded the area and was successful . But as a result there was a peninsular war. So Spain lost nearly all of its colonial possessions in the first third of the century. Panama gained independence from Spain in 1821. In 1846 Colombia signed a treaty permitting the US to construct a railway across the isthmus. Colombia and Panama grew wealthy from the railway. When king Charles  V of Spain ordered to survey the feasibility of constructing a waterway, the idea of a canal across the isthmus was first raised in 1524. The French received a contract from Colombia to build a canal in 1878.A revolutionary Junta declared Panama independent in 1903.But Colombia did not recognize panama as a legitimately separate nation till 1921.
Bunau-Varilla was appointed Panamanian ambassador to the US. Construction began again on the canal in 1904 and the first ship sailed through the canal in 1914. since the completion of the canal , the US military repeatedly intervened in the country’s political affairs. The Panamanian army grew more powerful after the wane of US insthience. The Guardia Nacional took the control of the government in 1968 and General Omar Torri jos emerged as the new leader. The president forced US government to withdraw their military in 1999.
Colonel Manuel Antonio Noriega resized the Guardia Nacional and made himself the defacto ruler of panama. He started to consolidate his power. For an international scandal of Noriego. Things went from bad to worse in early 1987.He was publicly accused of involvement in drug trafficking with Colombian drug cartels. Noriega’s regime was an international embarrassment. Economic sanctions were imposed against panama by US. There were two unsuccessful coups during his time .At last he became president in 1989. For killing an unarmed US marine dressed in civilian clothes, he surrendered to US force and was sentenced to 40 years in a Florida prison . He was released on good behavior in 2007.
After Noriegas, Guillermo Endara became elected and legitimate president of anama. But he was unsuccessful leader and Earnesto perez Balladares became elected president in 1994.He was thought of corrupt. Moscoso became first female leader in 1999. she increased unemployment to 30%..

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