Kyrgyzstan

Brief History:

Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Repulic is a country located in central Asia with a territory of 198500km. It is a landlocked and mountainous country.Its capital name is Bishbek.It has a population of 5.6 million. The language of Kyrgyz is Kyrgyz and the currency name is shome. 86.3% population of Kyrgyz is muslims.25th Dec. is its national Day.The government system is constitutional republic.

Area:

Kyrgyzstan , a country in Central Asia. It is bordered by Kazakhstan,Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and China. The total area is (198,500 km 2 ). Kyrgyzstan is very mountainous; the Tien Shan covers most of the country. At 24,406 feet (7,439 m), Victory Peak is the highest point. Issyk Kul is the largest of several large mountain lakes. The Naryn River, which flows through the central part of Kyrgyzstan, is an important source of hydroelectric power.

Government System:

Unitary Parliamentary Republic is the  government system of Kyrgyzstan.

Population:

The total population of Kyrgyzstan about 5,77,6500. The Kyrgyzstan population is mainly comprised of three ethnic groups, namely the Kyrgyz, the Russians and the Uzbek population. The two main segments of the country, is the north and the south which have varied cultural and economic pattern with some particular ethnic groups residing.The Fergana Valley in the eastern Kyrgyzstan and along the borders of Central Asian countries of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan is one of the most densely populated areas. This region is also very fertile and agriculturally productive.

Culture:

Kyrgyz culture has been greatly influenced by their nomadic heritage.The ethnic groups in Kyrgyzstan have contributed highly to its culture, tradition and customs. The sedentary groups of Uzbeks and Tajiks were highly influenced by the native and nomadic lifestyle of the Kyrgyz who moved with their herds in the mountains. The people of Kyrgyzstan are highly active and make good use of the native resources. It is reflected in the way a household was run, in customs and rites. People decorated their homes with items that were both beautiful and practical. The masterpiece of folk creation is the Kyrgyz yurta (yourt, yurt, tent), which was easy to assemble and transport from place to place.

 

Largest cities:

Osh, Bishkek, Karakol,Talash,Cholpon-ata, Jalalabad

Monetary unit:

Som.

Languages :

Kyrgysz or Kirghiz is a Turkic language with about 4.5 million speakers mainly in Kyrghyzstan, and also in China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia. It is official language in Kyrgyzstan, together with Russian, is closely related to Altay and is mutually intelligible with Kazakh. 

Religion :

Vast majority of today’s Kyrgyz are Muslims of the Sunni but Islam came late and fairly superficially to the area. Kyrgyz Muslims generally practice their religion in a specific way influenced by earlier tribal customs. The practice of Islam also differs in the southern and northern regions of the country. Kyrgyzstan remained a secular state after the fall of communism, which had only superficial influence on religious practice when Kyrgyzstan was a Soviet republic. Most of the Russian population of Kyrgyzstan is atheist or Russian Orthodox.

GDP/PPP :

The total GDP is $ 13.125billion and per capita is $ 2,372 .The nominal GDP is $5.920 billion and per capita is$ 1,070.

Brief Discussion:

stone implements found in the Tain shan mountains indicate the presence of human society in what is now Kyrgyzstan as many as 200,000 to 300,000 years ago.The first written records of a civilization in the era occupied by Kyrgyzstan appear in Chinese chronicles beginning about 2000 B.C. According to recent historical findings, Kyrgyz history dates back to 201 B.C. The early Kyrgyz lived in the upper yenisey River Valley, central Siberia.First appearing in Chinese records of the Grand Historian as Gekunor Jiankun, and later as part of the Tiele tribes, they were once under the rule of gokturks and Uyghurs.The first kingdom to emerge from the Gokturk khanate was the Buddhist Uyghur Empire that flourished in the territory encompassing most of central Asia from 740 to 840 AD. Arab invaders conquer central Asia, including what is now Kyrgyzstan, and introduce Islam in the 8th century. Uyghurs converted to islam no latter than the 10th century and built a federation with Muslim institutions called karakhanlik whose princely dynastics are called karakhanids by most histroyians. With the rise of the mongal Empire in the 13th century, Kyrgyz people migrate southwards from the yenisei River region in central siberis to the Tian-shan region.

The mongol’s invasion devastated the territory of Kyrgyzstan, costing its people their independence and their written language.For the next 200 years, the Kyrgyz remained under the Golden Horde, Chagatai khanate and the oirats as well as Dzungars that succeeded that regine. Freedom was regained in 1510, but Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the seventeenth century by the kalnyks, in the mid-eighteenth century by the manchus, and in the early nineteenth century by the uzbek khantnate of Kokand to the west.

In 1876 Russian forces conquered the khatane and incorporated Kyrgyzstan into the Russian empire.The Kyrgyz people were traditionally pastoral nomads.Due to extensive Russian colonization in the 1990s, Russian settlers were given much of the best agricultural land.This led to an unsuccessful and disastrous rovolt by the Kyrgyz people in 1916. Kyrgyzstan became part of the soviet Federated socialist republic in 1924 and was made an autonomous republic in 1926.It became a constituent republic of the USSR in 1936.

During the 1920s, Kyrgyzstan saw considerable cultural, educational and social change. Economic nd social development also was notable.Literacy increased and a standard literacy language was introduced. The soviet forced the Kyrgyz to abandon their nomadic culture and adopt modern farming and industrial production techniques.

On 11 march 1945 Mikhail Gorbachev was chosen by the politburo as the new general secretary of the communist party of the soviet Union.Gobacchev immediately lownched his new liberalizing policies of glasnost and perestroika.Unofficial political groups were forbidden, but several groups that emereged in 1989 to deal with an acute housing crisis were permitted to function. Gorbachev’s policy of separating party and state began to impact at the soviet repuliclevel in early 1990s.

In 1990, state of emergency imposed after several hundred people are killed in interethnic clashes between Uzbaks and Kyrgyz around the southern town of Osk.In the same year, Askar Akayev, a liberal academic on the reform wing of the Kyrgyz communist party elected by the legislature to the newly created post of president.

On 31 August 1991, Kyrgyzstan declared independence from Moscow and a democratic government was subsequently establish.In the same year, Kyrgyzstan acquires its present name, dropping Kirgizia, and Kyrgyz was announced as the state language in sept 1991.A new constitution was passed by the parliament in may 1993 and the republic of Kyrgyzstan was renamed the Kyrgyz republic.Russian rouble replaced by som as unit of currency.Two times a coloured Reavolution took place here, in 2004 and 2010.

Kyrgyzstan is a member of the common wealth of independent states, the European Economic community, the collective security Treaty organization, the shoughi cooperation organization,OIC, the Turkie council and the UN. Kyrgyzstan has of Belarus, Kazakhastan and Russia.

Kazakhstan has the potential for becoming one of central Asia’s richest countries became of its huge mineral oil resources and its liberalized economy, which encourages western investment.In 2000, oil was discovered in kazakhstan’s portion of the Caspian sea. It is believed to be the largest oil find in 30 years.In march 2001, a pipleline opened to transport oil from the Tengiz gields to the Russian Black sea port of Novorossiysk.In 2004, Kazakhstan signed a deal allowing china to build an oil pipeline to the Chinese border.

The years following independence have been marked by significant reforms to the soviet style economy and political monopoly on power.The country has enjoyed significant economic growth since 2000.

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