Jordan

Brief History:

Jordan officially the Hashesite kingdom of Jordan is an Arab kingdom in western Asia with a boundary of 92.300 km. It has 6.5 million people in the country.Amman in the capital of Jordan.The language is Arabic and the currency name is Jordanian Dinar.98.2% population of Jordan is Muslims.Government system is constitutional hereditary monarchy.25th may is the national day of the country.

Area:

It’s total area is 89,342 square kilometer. Jordan is bordered by Iraq to the north-east,Syria to the north and Palestine,The Dead Sea and Israel to the west, Saudi Arabia to the south and east.It is situated on the eastern bank of Jordan River.

Government System:

Jordan’s government system is Unitary Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy.Though, Jordan is a constitutional Monarchy, the king is the supreme Head of state and the Prime Minister is the second power holder of the country.

Population:

In 2014, the population of Jordan is estimated at 7,588,954. The area was inhabited by many Semitic Cannanite-speaking kingdoms, and it has been controlled by many empires, including the Akkadian Empire, Ancient Egypt, the Hittite Empire and Israelites.

At present, the 95-97% of Jordanians are Arabs, but there are many other ethnic groups in Jordan. There are about 500,000 Syrian  and over 47,000 Iraqis refugees have moved to Jordan to escape violence in the last two years. Assyrian Christians make up 0.8% of the population, most of whom are Eastern Aramaic speaking refugees. Here are 30,000 Kurdis, most of which are refugees from Turkey, Iran and Iraq, and about 5,000 Armenians. Jews were once prevalent in the country but now number just 300.

Jordan is currently experiencing rapid growth with an annual growth rate of 2.2%. It’s estimated that Jordan’s population will continue its growth until it reaches 9.9 million in 2050.It’s estimated that there are 1.2 million illegal migrant workers and 500,000 legal migrant workers in Jordan, and thousands of foreign women come to work in the nightclubs and hotels.

 Religion:

Jordan is a majority Muslim country with 95% of the population following Sunni Islam and a small minority follow shiite, Sufi and Baha’i branches. Jordan has also an indigenous Christian minority, making up around 4% of the population, mainly Greek Orthodox or Catholic and have also about 20,000 Druze living mostly in the north of Jordan.

Currency:

Jordanian Dinar is the currency of Jordan.

Culture:

Jordanian culture is a blend of the Arabian, Islamic and Modern influences. The capital city Amman is a famous and ancient historic city. Most of the people of Jordan belong to Islam and they speak the Arabic language. English and French are also the official languages.

The village people mostly consists of Bedouin and Palestinian communities who have nomadic way of life. The Jordanian Arabians depends upon the agricultural farming and cattle breeding while the greater number of the settled urban Jordanians are educated and perform businesses and other official jobs.

The small geography of Jordan still possesses variation in the clothing and traditions due to various life styles of the Jordanians. The traditional dress of Jordan is also very unique and fantastic.The traditional dress for women is very decorative and full of superb craftsmanship and embroidery. This dexterity is full of amazing color patterns and fascinating patchworks. Apart from the heavy load of the tiresome household tasks, the Jordanian women love to wear delicate and embellished dresses.The most common part of a Jordanian women’s costume is a long rectangular cleavage which is decorated with tremendous embroidery and it is adjusted in the front of the dress. As the traditional clothing for men consists of tunic trousers shirts,  and an elaborate over garment with a belt or cummerbund. They also cover their head with the typical Arabian Scarf which is like a turban.

The national main dish is Mansaf, which consists of lamb cooked in dried yogurt and served with seasoned rice on flat bread. Mansaf is always served on holidays and special family occasions such as visits to relatives or friends, engagements, and weddings. When people visit family and friends, tea, Turkish-style or Arabic-style coffee, or fruit juice is served. Often this meal includes sweets, especially on holidays.

 Basic Economy:

Jordan’s economy is based on free enterprise. The service sector, consisting of government, tourism, transportation, communication, and financial services contributes the most to the economy, employing 70 percent of the workforce. Amman has developed into a regional business center

 

GDP:

The total GDP of Jordan is $ 39.29 billion and per capita is 6,100 and the nominal GDP is $29.233 billion and the per capita is 4,674.

Brief Discussion:

Evidence of human activity in Jordan dates back to the Paleolithic period (500000-17000B.C). while there is no architectural evidence from this era, archaeologists have found tools,such as flint and basalt hand-axes, knives and scraping implements.In the Neolithic period (8500-45000), there major shifts occurred.first, people became sedentary, livig in small villages and discovering and domesticating new food sources.second this shift in settlement patterns appears to have been catalyzed by a marked change in climate. Third, the inhabitants began to make pottery from clay rather than plaster.

The innovation of copper smelting during the Chaleolithic (copper) Age(45000-3000 BC) was a major technological advance for the region. During the Bronge Age (3000-1550 Bc) , crafts such as pottery and jewellery making came under the dominant cultural influence of Jordan. By the Iron Age (1200-330 BC) the most prominent kingdom in Jordan were Aman, Moab and Edom.

Conflict between the Seleucids and the ptolenies enabled the Arabic speaking Nabatacans to create a kingdom in south east Jordan. In A.D. 106 it became part of the Roman province of Arabica and in 633-636 was conquered by the Arabs.In the 16th century, Jordan submitted to ottoman Turkish rule and administer ed from Damascus.With the break-up of the ottoman Empire at the end of WW1, Taken from the Turkis by the British, Jordan (formely known as trans Jordan) was separated from the Palestine mandate in 1920, and in 1921,placed under the rule of Abdullah ibn Hussein.

The most serious threats to Emir Abdullah’s position in Transjordan were repeated Wahabi incursions from Najd into southern parts of his territory.The British military force was the primary obstacle against the Wahabis between 1922-24 and was also utilized to help emir Abdullah with the suppression of local rebillions.In 1923, Britain recognized Jordans independence, subject to the mandate. The mandate for Transjordan ordered on may 1946 with the singing of the Treaty of London and Transjordan gained full independence.

It participated in the ware between the Arab states and the newly founded state of Israel.

Thousands of Palestinians fled the Arab Israeli flighting to the west Bank and Jordan That part of Palestine occupied by Jordan toroops was formally incorporated by action of the Jordanian parliament in 1950.The 1950s have been labeled as a time of “Jordan’s Experiment with Liberalism”. Jordan had one of the freest and most liberal societies in the middle East and in the greater Arab world during the 1950s and early 1960s.

Jordan ended its special defense treaty relationship with the UK and british troops completed their with dorawal in 1957. In February 1958, following announcement of the merger of Syria and Egypt into the United Arab republic (UAR), Iraq and Jordan announced the Arab federation of iraq and Jordan also know as the Arab Union.

The 1961 break up of the UAR eased Arab national pressure on Hussein.Jordan was swept into the 1967 Arab Israli war and lost East Jerusalem and all of its territory west of the Jordan river, west Bank. Open warfare broke out between the Palestinians and government forces in 1970.Violence ended with Jordanian forces won a decisive victory over the fadayeen in july 1971, ezpelling them from the country.Jordan witnessed some of the most severe protests and social upheavals in the history during 1980s against infliction and lack of political freedom.There was rioting in several cities over price increases in 1989.

During the Gulf war of 1990-91 jordan supported the Iraqi position of saddam Hussein. This position led to the temporary repeal of U.S aid to Jordan.As a result, Jordan came under sever economic and diplomatic stroin.

After the Iraqi defeat in 1991, king Hussein’s decision to join the middle east peace talks in mid-1991 helpedrestore his country’s relations with the U.S. The Israel- Jordan peace Treaty was concluded on October 26,1994, ending 46 year official state of war.

During the Arab spring, on Jan 28, thousands gathered in Aman and other cities, calling for the resignation of prime minister and demonstrating against hish food and fuel prices.In February,king Abdullah named the country’s new prime minister and announced subsidies for food and fuel as well as pay increases for civil sevants.Altough Jordan is a constitutional monarchy, the king holds wide executive and legislative powers.jordan is classified as a country of medium human development by the 2011 Human Dvelopment Report, and an emerging market with the third freest economy in west Asia and North Africa (32nd freest worldwide). Jordan has enjoyed “advanced states”. With the European Union since December 2010, and it is a member of the Euro-mediterranean free trade area.It is also a founding member of the Arab league and the organization of Islamic cooperation (OIC).Jordan has sought to remain at peace with all of its neighbors.

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