Iran officially the Islamic Republic of Iran since 1980 is a country in western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km. Tehran is the nations capital.It has a population of 75.1 million.The language of Iran is Farsi and the currency name is Rial.99.4% population of this country follows national day.The government system of this country is Theoeratic Republic.
Iran is home to one of the world oldest continuous major civilization with historical and urban settlements dating back to 4000 BCE. The Medes unified Iran as a nation and empire in 625 BCE. The Achaemenid Empire (550-330BCE) was the first of the Persian empires to rule from the Balkans to North Africa and also central Asia from their capital persis.
They were succeeded by the Seleucid Empire, parthiains and sasanians who governed Iran for almost 1,000 years.the Islamic conquest of perisa (633-656) ended the sasanians and was a turning point in Iranian history. Islamization in took place during 8th to 10th century and led to the eventual declne of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. Iran there after played a vital role in the subsequent Islamic Golden Age, producing numerous influential scientists scholors artists and thinkers.
The emergence of the Safavid Dynasty in 1511, which established shias Islam as the afficial religion of their empire marking one of the most important turning points in the history of Islam.
Iran had been a monarchy ruled by a shah or emperor , almost without interruption from 1501 untill the 1979 Iranian revolution.The Persian constitutional Revolution of 1906 established the nations first parliament which operated within a constitutional monarchy.
The discovery of oil in the early 20th century generated international interest in the nation, particularly great Britain and Russia.The United states became increasingly interested in Iran following the second word war,particularly its oil reserves.In 1950, the US and Britain helped orchestrate a coup dieat to oust prime minister Mohammad Mosaddea,
bringing the pro western monarch shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, back to power.
In the years that followed, Iran forged closerties with Washington receiving large amounts of military and economic aid from America until the late 1960s.Iran began ramping up its defense budget and with the help of American and British defence programes, it became one of the regions strongest military power.
During the 1970s, shah Reza Pahlavi faced growing opposition led by exiled spiritual leader ayatollah Rohollah Khomeni. Afetr years of tenuously holding on to power with the backing of the U.S, Pahlavi was ousted during the 1979 Islamic revolution and khaneni came to power after returning from 14 years of exile in Iraq and France for opposing the regime.Iraq officially became an Islamic Repulic on 1 April 1979.Iraq invaded Iran in the fall of 1980 over a conflict sparked in part by a disagreement over the border in the Shatt-al-Arab water way area.The bloddy eight year conflict ended with casually counts for estimates range from 300,000 to two million.Over the years, the leadership of the Islamic republic has remained over whel mingly conservative and the conservatives remain firmly in power even now.
Iran’s nuclear installations and lack of disclosure during international inspections have triggered fears that the countery is developing nuclear weapons.tehran clains its efforts are peaceful and aimed at building an atomic power station.In 1995 the U.S suspended all trade with Iarn over its nuclear ambitions and alleged support of terrorist groups.Tensions with the U.S also ramped up after the U.S invaded Iraq in march 2003.In 2006,Iran announced it had successfully produced enriched Uranium.In May 2007, IAEA say’s Iran could develop a nuclear weapon in three to eight years if it chooses. UN ratified four rounds of sanctions between 2006 and 2010 EU. Has imposed trade, travel and oil export bans.US, UK and Canada have imposed sanctions on trade and financial institutions.
Iran has a unique political system, based on the 1979 constitution combines elements of a parliamentary democracy with a religious theocracy run by the country’s clergy where in the supreme leader wields significant influence.It is a multisultural nation comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups most inhabitants are shites.
Iran is a major regional and middle power,exerting considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy through its large reserves of fossil fuels, ahich include the largest natural gas supply in the world and the fourth-largest proven petroleum reserves.It hosts Asia’s fourth largest number of UNESCO world Heritage sites. Globally it ranks 8th in the world for the amount of books published per year and was ranked first in scientific progreaa in the world in 2011.Iran is a founding member of the UN, NAM, OIC and OPEC.