Finland

Brief Description:

Finland is the Scandinavian Country under the continent of Europe. The area of Finland is 338,424 square kilometer. The population of the Finland is about 5 million. The official language is Finish and Swedish. Mostly people of Finland talk in Finish language. Finland is divided between two parts Northern Finland and Russia (another part). Finland is the richer country with 36,395 dollar GDP per capita.

Area:

Finland is located between Sweden and Russia, Finland also borders the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland. Finland’s area, at 337,030 square kilometers (130,127 square miles), is slightly smaller than the state of Montana. Finland shares a long border of 1,313 kilometers (816 miles) with Russia, 729 kilometers (453 miles) of border with Norway, and 586 kilometers (364 miles) of border with Sweden. The remaining 1,126 kilometers (700 miles) of its boundary is coastline, excluding islands and coastal indentations. The capital, Helsinki, is the north-ernmost national capital in Europe, but it is found in the south of Finland, as are the majority of its 94 towns. Finland also includes the island province of Åland, located between Sweden and Finland. The islands are locally autonomous, have their own government, and are entirely Swedish-speaking.

Government System:

Parliamentary Republic.

Population:
It is estimated in 2014, that the total population of Finland is 54,57,429. The population growth rate is a very small 0.17 percent and generally has been small. Finland has a high proportion of elderly: only 18 percent of the population are under 14 years of age and 15 percent are over 65.

Finland is extremely homogenous. Ethnic Finns make up 93 percent of the population, ethnic Swedes 6 percent, and the rest is mainly made up of the Sami (also called Lapps), Roma, and Tatar. There are 2 official languages: Finnish (spoken by 93 percent of the population) and Swedish (by 6 percent). Due to the harsh climate in the north, population is concentrated in the lowlands in the south of Finland. Approximately 81.2 percent of Finns live in urban areas with around 1 million concentrated in the capital, Helsinki, and its metropolitan area.

Formerly a source of emigrants (people moving outwards from a country), Finland is currently becoming a destination for immigrants (people who move into a foreign country). In 1996, the number of foreigners living in Finland was 74,000, with Russians accounting for about 20 percent, followed by inhabitants with Estonian, Swedish, and Somali former citizenship.

For every square kilometre of Finnish land, there is an average of 16 people here. That converts to a figure of 41 per square mile and makes this the 201st most densely populated country in the world.

Largest cities:

Helsinki, Espoo, Tampere, Vantaa, Turku, Oulu, Lahti etc are the largest cities in Finland by population.

Monetary unit:

Euro.

National name:

The Republic of Finland.

Languages :

Between the two official languages of Finland, Finnish is the first language spoken by 93% of the country’s 5 million inhabitants. The other official language, Swedish, is spoken by around 6% of the population, most of whom live in the south west and are also speakers of Finnish. Sámi is a minority language in the Nordic countries that is spoken by around 2,000 people living in the north of Finland, which is 0.03% of the Finnish population.

Religion :

There has been complete freedom of worship in Finland since 1923. Most Finnish belong to the Evangelical-Lutheran Church (approximately 78 per cent) while 1.1 per cent belong to the Finnish Orthodox Church.

The Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Finland and the Finnish Orthodox Church of Finland are established churches with legal status. This legal status allows the levying of church taxes. This means that members of congregations pay taxes to the church. However, Finland has no state-church structure in the precise sense of the term. Churches have internal independence.

In general, Finnish people are fairly secular in their views, and religion does not play a big part in everyday life. Approximately 19.5 per cent of the population is without religious affiliation.

The number of immigrants in Finland is growing, and other religions are becoming more commonplace. Approximately 1.4 per cent of people.

Literacy rate:

The literacy rate in Finland is 100% with a rank of 4 out of 194.

GDP/PPP :

Total GDP $ 197.476 billion and per capita $36,395. The nominal GDP $250.16 & per capita $46,098.

Brief History:
The first people came to Finland from Russia. They are settled in Finland at last of ice age about 9000-11000 years ago. Next people came to Finland from Sweden. So the Finland people are mixed between Russia and Sweden. Also their language is mixed with these countries. After the 1500 BC at the time of Bronze Age the coastal regions of Finland were a part of the Nordic Bronze Culture, whereas in the inland regions the influences came from the bronze-using cultures of Northern and Eastern Russia. At the end of Iron Age in 1155 Finland became the part of Sweden. Finland was part of Sweden for six hundred years long.
Sweden and Russia fought several time for the ruling of Finland. After long time war wars Russia and Finland became a treaty as Treaty of Noteborg in 1323This treaty said that the areas currently known as Western and Southern Finland belonged to Sweden and that Eastern Finland was under Russian power. Although there was a treaty but both countries were doing the cold war. Finally in 1809 Sweden surrenders Finland to Russia. The Czar declares Finland a semi-autonomous Grand Duchy with himself as constitutional monarch represented by a governor general. In 1812 the capital of Finland transferred to Helsinki.
In this time Finland developed their economy strongly. Russia was ruling the Finland as its own cultures and power. Finish wanted to their own culture, language and power. But Russia did not agree with them. For this reason there was a strong conflict with Russian and Finish expectation. In 1853 Finland involved the war named Crimean War. British jointed with Finland for the independence of Finland. In 1856 Finland issued its first postage stamps and in 1860 Finland published its own currency. In1905 Finland introduced its first parliament named unicameral parliament. December 6, 1917 Finland declared the independence from Russia. The new state is first recognized by the Soviet Union, France, Germany and Sweden. In 1919 Finland established the constitution in the parliament.
In 1918 Finland faced a Civil War. The conflict was happened between White guards and red guards. Reds guards lost in the Finish Civil War and White guards ruled the Finland up 1930. In this war 37 thousand people were died. In 1939(30 November) Soviet Union Attacked Finland again and ended the war in 1940. As a result of the wars, Finland had to concede Karelia and a few other territories to the Soviet Union. In 1941 Finland faced the constitution war. Finland was a parliamentary democracy from 1939 to 1945.
In 1944 (September 19) Finland sign some peace contact with Soviet Union. For making the strong relation with Soviet Union in 1947 Finland decreased its Marshall aid. After this time Finland faced could war but the good relation with Soviet Union, Finland was able to overcome this situation. Finnish president from 1956 to 1981, a master of diplomacy and one of the great leaders of his age, was responsible for steering Finland through the Cold War and its relationship with the Soviet Union. Finland jointed the Scandinavia as founding member. After finishing the all conflict of country Finland become a strong economic country in Europe.
In 1986 Finland become the full member of EFTA  and in 1989 Council of Europe. On October 1994 Finland people voted to join the European Union. 57% voted to join the European Union. Next year Finland parliament approved to join the European Union by 152-45 votes. In 2002 Finland approved the Euro Currency. At the same year Finland elected the first women president Mrs. Tarja Halonen. Now Finland has no conflict. Finland’s economy is growing more and more than previous year.Finland at a glance:
Population: The total population is about 5,421,827
Currency:
 The name of Finland Currency is  Euro (€) (EUR)
Language:Finnish
Capital City:Helsinki

Largest City: Helsinki

Demonym : Finnish. Finn

Anthem: ” Maamme”

Government :  Parliamentary  Republic

Calling Code : + 358

Time Zone:
EET(UTC +2)
Summer(DST) EEST (UTC +3)

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