Egypt

Brief Description:

Egypt is situated in African continent. The capital city is Cairo. The official language of the country is Arabic. The name of legislatyre is parliament. The area of the country is 1002450 square kilometers . The total population is about 84550000.

Area:

Its total area is 1002,450 square kilometers.

Government System:

Unitary semi- presidential Constitutional Republic.

Population:

Its total population is 86,502,500 and density 86/ square km.

Largest cities:

Cairo, Alexandria,Suez, port said, Subrra el Kheima, Loxor, Mansoura

Monetary unit:

Egyptian Pound

National name:

The Arab Republic of Egypt.

Languages :

Egyptian Arabic is widely spoken and it is the official language in Egypt.In southern Egypt, Saudi Arabic is the main spoken language for most non-urbanized people. Of the many varieties of Arabic, Egyptian Arabic is the most widely understood first dialect in the Middle East-North Africa, probably due to the influence of Egyptian cinema throughout the Arabic-speaking world.

A Bedouin Arab minority speaks a variety of Bedouin Arabic mostly in the Sinai Peninsula. Sudanese Arabic is also spoken by the Sudanese minority.

Religion :

Mainly Egypt is  Sunni Muslim country with Islam as its state religion. The percentage of adherents of various religions is a controversial topic in Egypt. An estimated 90% are identified as Muslim, 9% as Coptic Christians, and 1% as other Christian denominations. Non-denominational Muslims form roughly 12% of the population.

In 7th century when Islam arrived, Egypt emerged as a center of politics and culture in the Muslim world. Under Anwar Sadat, Islam became the official state religion and Sharia the main source of law. It is estimated that 15 million Egyptians follow native Sufi orders,with the Sufi leadership asserting that the numbers are much greater as many Egyptian Sufis are not officially registered with a Sufi order.

Religion was very important to the Ancient Egyptians. Their religion was strongly influenced by tradition, which caused them to resist change. . One of the very strong traditions was that of Divine Kingship. Divine Kingship is the belief that the Pharaoh was not only the King (political ruler) but also a god. The Pharaoh was associated with Horus, son of Re the sun god. Later it was believed that at death he became Osiris, or an Osiris, and would help the Egyptians in their afterlife.

Literacy rate:

73.9%

GDP/PPP :

Total GDP is $ 576.350 billion and per capita is $6,714.

Brief history:
The name Egypt comes from the Geek Aegyptos which was the Greek pronunciation of the Egyptain name ‘Hwt-Ka-ptah’ The country was known simply as misr which means country a name still in use by Egyptians for their nation in the present day.Egypt thrived for thousands of years (8000BCE-525BCE) as an independent nation whose culture was famous for great cultural advences in every area of human knowledge from the arts to science to to technology and religion .While much of Europe was still wrapped in animal skins and wielding clubs,Egyptians enjoyed a sophisticated life ,dedicated to maintaining order in the universe and to making the most of their one great commodity, the Nile . The Greek historian Herodotus observed that Egypt was the gift of the Nile Ancient Egyptions called it simply iteru the river.
Evidence of overarging of cattle, on the land which is now the sahara Desert , has been dated to about 8000 BCE. Organized farming began in c.5000BCe. the written history of the land begins at some point between 5000 and 3200 BCE,BY 3500BCE mummification of the dead was in practice at the city of Aicrakonpolis. From c.3150-1078BCE Egypt was ruled by 20 Dynasty.By the time of Ramesses XI (1107-1078BCE) the end of 20th Dynasty the government had corruption of the cleargy that the country again fractured and central administration collapsed , initiating the so called third Intermediate period of 1069-653BCE.IN 525 BCE the Egyptian forces surrendered and the country fell to the Persians .It would remain under Persian occupation until the coming of Alexander the Great in 332-331 BCE. He established the city of Alexandria and moved on to Persian Empire. After ptolemia Dynasty (305-30 BCE) Egypt then became a province of Rome (30BCE-476BCE) .Eygpt was under Byzantine Empire from 527 to 646 .Christianity arrived in Egypt in Ad 45 direct from Palestine. The early need to hold hidden prayer .Egypts Christians played a decisive role in the evolution of the young religion-like the duties of a Christian, the correct way to pray and many other aspects of religious life.
In 629, a messenger traveled to the emperor Byzantium from Arabia who was murdered on the way. Ten years later Arab armies invaded Egypt. Under their brilliant leader Amribin al –As defeated the Byzantine army near Dasbylon and found the gates of Alexandria opened to them without a fight. Amr dia not force Egyptians to convert to the new religion.
From 15th century Egypt was under ottoman Empire . But by the end of 18th century, the arrival of Europeans heralded the start ol-very different age. Being unable to invade Britain through the battle of pyramids in 1798,Napoleon found a way to strike at British interests by capturing Egypt and in the process taking control of the quickest route between Europe and Britain’s fast growing empire in the east . last a weak after Napoleon had ridden into cair French and Britain intervened into the matter.
In 1801, the French and British departure left Egypt politically unstable a situation that was exploited by a lieutenant in an Albanian contingent of the ottoman army, named Mohammad Ali . His reign is pivotal in the history of Egypt.
In 1969,suez canal was opened.In the same year, the Khedive (viceroy)Ismail announced that Egypt was now part of Europe , not Africa In 1882, British soldlers defeated a nationalist Egyptian army and colonized Egypt.Their main reason of colonization to ensure the safety of the sucz canal.
During the WWI, Egypt sided Germany and against Britain, the British felt the need to make Egypt an official protectorate.The desire for self determination was articulated by riots in 1919 . The British and their Allies came to Egypt in ever greater numbers following the outbreak of WWII . On 26 January 1952, ‘Black Saturday’ cairo was set on fire.Within a dy 70 years of British rule were reduced.
Colonel Nasser became president in election held in 1956. He successfully faced down Britain and France in a confrontation over the sucz canal, which was mostly owned by British and French investors .On 26th july . he announced that he had nationalised the sucz canal .A combined British ,French and Israeli invasion force, intended to take possenion of the canal.In 1967,Israel launched a surprise attack and destroyed Egypts air force . Israel controlled all of the Sinai peninsula and had closed the camp David agreement between Israel and Egypt,Israel agreed to withdraw from Sinai in return for Egyptian recognition of Israel’s right to exist . There was shock in the Arab world .As a result, Egypt lost much prestige among Arabs, who moved the Head Duarterr of the Arab league out of cairo, and sodat lost his life.During Mubarak regine , the Muslim Brotherhood calls for change and they turned into forces.The matter escalated from a domestic issue to a matter of international concern when Islamist began to target one of the states most vulnerable and valuable sources of income .Tourists In 2005 Through constitutional arendment .Mubarak introduced direct and competitive presidential election. In 2005 election ,Mubarak became president. In January 2011, huge anti-government demon strations and violence started in cairo’s Tahrir square. Mubarak was arrested and sentenced to life inprisionment over death.
In 2012 presidential election, the victory of the Muslim Brotherhood candidate, MD. Mursi, caused political instability again as the liberal and secular groups didn`t accept this victory cordially .

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