Indonesia

Brief History:

Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia is a sovereign state in southeast Asia a Oceamia with a territory of 19,19440 km. The nations capital city is Jakarta.Indonesia is an archipelago comprising 13,466 islands.It encompases 33 provinces and 1 special Administterative Region with over 238 million people making it the world’s fourth most populous country.99.2% of the population follow Islam, making it the most populous muslim country. The language and currency name is Ajorbaizani. 25th Dec.is the country’s national Day.Indonesia’s republic form of government comprises an elected legislature and president.

Government System:

The government system of Indonesia is Unitary presidential constitutional republic. The power is concentrated in the central government. The president of Indonesia is the head of state and head of government, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs. The president of the Indonesia is Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono who  is  the chairman of the Democratic Party of Indonesia.

Location:

Indonesia is an island country in Southeast Asia consisting of 17000 island with 6000 inhabitant. Sumatra, Java (the most populous), Bali, Kalimantan (Indonesia’s part of Borneo), Sulawesi (Celebes), the Nusa Tenggara islands, the Moluccas Islands, and Irian Jaya (also called West Papua), the western part of New Guinea are some of the largest islands.Malaysia andPapua New Guinea is its neighboring countries.The country has some largest active volcanoes.Earthquakes visit frequently.The land area is 1,919,440 square kilometres . This means that Indonesia is the 19th largest country in terms of land mass and it has a high population density, too

Population:

As per latest official census recording the population of Indonesia took place in 2010 and it showed that there were 237,424,363 people living on its 17,508 Islands. This showed a population density of 123.76 people per square kilometer (323.05 per square mile). Near about  58% of Indonesia’s population live on the Island of Java and it is the most populous island in the whole world.

At-present, the country has embarked on a program of family planning awareness but that has worked little to slow down a considerable population growth which is expected to reach around 254 million by 2020 and a staggering 288 million by 2050. The population of Indonesia in 2014 is already estimated at 253 million with no signs of slowing down the present growing rate.

GDP:

In the first quarter of 2014 the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Indonesia expanded 5.21 percent over the same quarter of the previous year.From 2000 to 2014 GDP was 5.42 percent.Indonesia is the largest economy in South East Asia. Industry contributes for the largest share of GDP (46.5 percent of total GDP). Within industry, the most important is manufacturing, which has been one of the main growth engines 

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Brief Description:

Indonesias today are like malayasians and Filipinos, of malay origin and are the descendants of migrants that arrived around 4000 BC. The Dongson culturae, which originated in Vietnam and southern china around 1000BC spread to Indonesia.By 700 BC, Indonesia was dotted with permanent villages where life was linked to rice production. These early Indonesians were animists, believing all objects had a life force or soul. By the 1st century AD, small kingdoms, little more than collections of villages, evolved in Java.The Hindu-Buddist kingdom of sriwijaya rose in Sumatra during the 7th century AD. Merchants from Arabia, Persia and India brought goods to sriwijaya’s coastal cities in exchange for goods from china and local products.

The Buddhists sailendra dynasty and the Hindu Mataram dynasty flourished in central Java between the 8th and 10th centuries. These kingdoms absorbed Indian influences and left magnificent structures such as the Buddhist movement at Borobudur and the Hindu temples of parambanan. A series of kingdom held sway until the 1294 rise of the Majapahit kingdom, which grew to prominence during the reign of Hayam Waruk from 1350 to 13.89. After Hayam wark’s death in 1389,the kingdom began a steady decline.

Indian Muslim traders began spreading Islam in Indonesia in the 18th and 19th centuries. Soon after wards, rulers on Java’s north coast adopted the new creed and conquered the Hindu –based Majapahit Empire in the Javanese hinterland.The faith gradually spread throughout archipelago and Indonesia I is today the world’s largest Islamic nation From the 15th and 16th centuries, Indonesian rulers made Islam the state religion.

Indonesia’s abundant spices first brought Portuguese merchants to the key trading port of Malacca in 1511.The Dutch eventually Portuguese and the tenacious Dutch East Indies company established a spice monopoly which lasted well into the 18th century. In 1811, the British occupied parts of the Dutch East Indies, including java.

Control was restored to the Dutch in 1816 and a treaty was signed in 1824 under which the British exchanged Bengkulu in Sumatra for Dutch controlled Melaka on the Malay Peninsula.

Sarekat Ialam, an early nationalist movement, founded in 1909 by Islamic traders.National stiring began to challenge the Dutch presence in Indonesia.A four year guerilla war led by nationalists against the Dutch on Java after WWII, along with successful diplomatic maneuverings abroad, helped bring about independence.The Republic of Indonesia, officially proclaimed on Aug. 17th 1945 gained sovereignly four years later.

During the first two decades of independence, the republic was dominated by the charismatic figure of sukarno, one of the early nationalists who had been imprisioned by the Dutch. General (ret) soeharto eased sukarno from power in 1967.Indonesia’s economy was sustained throughout the 1970s, almost exclusively by oil export.

The Asian financial crisis, which broke out in mid 1997, paralyzed the Indonesian economy with the rupiah losing 80% of its value against the us dollar at the peak of the turmoil.On may 21, 1998 soeharto resigned after 32 years in power and was replaced by B.J Habibie following bloody violence and riots.Indonesia held its first democratic election in October 1999.

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