East Timor

Brief History:

East Timor, officially the democratic Republic of Timor-leste is a country in southeast Asia with a territory of 15,007 km. The capital is Dili.It has a population of 1.2million.The language of East Timor is Portuguese Timur and the currency name is US Dollar.20th May is its national day.The country is a Democratic country.Almost 95% of the population practiees Therapada Buddhism.

Government System:

The government system of East Timor is Unitary semi-presidential republic.Present is the head of the state. But its president has no veto power of the government rules and regulation. President is elected by popular vote. Prime Minister is the head of power of the government.

Area:

East Timor is a small country,area is 14,874 square kilometer.Which is the 159th position in the world. East Timor is formed by half of Timor Island.Once It was called Portuguese Timor.East Timor is divided into thirteen districts.

Population:

The total population of the East Timor is 1,172,390, which is the 159th position in the world. The density of the population is 76.2 square kilo meter.

GDP:

The total GDP(PPP) of East Timor is 2.234 billion dollar,which was estimated in 2012. Per capita GDP is 1,847 us dollar. The total nominal GDP of East Timor is 1.293 billion dollar and the per capita GDP is 1,10 us dollar.

Brief Discussion:

The island of Timur was ppulated as part of the human migrathion that have shaped Australia more generally, who arrived from the north and west at least 42,000 years ago.Around 3000BC, a second migration brought Melanesians.Finally proto-Malays arrived from south china and north Indochina.Hskk traders are among those descended from this final group. Contact with the outside world was via networks of foreign seafaring traders from as far as china and India that served the archipelago.

The earlist historical record about Timur island is 14th century Nagarakretagama, canto 14, that identify Timur as an island within Majapahit’s realm. Outside products brought to the region included metal goods, rice,fine textiles and coins exchanged for local spices, sandalwood , deer horn, bees wax and slaves . Early European explores report thet the island had a number of small chiefdoms or princedoms in the early 16th century.

The Portuguese began to trade with Tmur by the early 16th century and colonized it throughout the mid-century and was known as Portuguese Timor until potugal’s decolonization of the country. Skirmishing with the Dutch in the region eventually resulted in an 1859 treaty for which Portugalceded the western half of the island.

Imperial Japan occupied East Timor during WWII, but Portugal resumed colonial authority after the Japanese surrender.

East Timur declare itself independent from Portugal on 28 Nov.1975, but was invaded by neighboring Indonesia nine days later.The Timur was occupied by Indonesia and was declared indonesia’s 27th province the following year.During the subsewuent two decade occupation, a campaign of pacification ensued. Although Indonesia did make subatantial investment in ifrastructures during its occupation in East Timur, the dissatisfaction remained widesprezd.

An international East Timur solidarity movement arose in response to the 1975 invasion.The movement was supported by churches,human rights groups and peace campainers, but developed its own organizations and infrastructure in many countries. Many demonstrations and vigils backed legislative actions to cut off military supplies to Indonesia. Between 1975 and 1999, there were an estimated about 102,800 conflict related deaths, the majority of which occurred during the Indonesian occupation.

The administration of east Timur was taken over by the UN through the United nations Transnational administration in East Timur (UNTAET),established on 25 oct 1999. The INTEREFT deployment ended on 14 Feb 2000 with the transfer of military command to the UN. Elections were held in late 2001 for a constitution, a task finished in Feb 2002.East Timur became formally independence on 20 may 2002. East Timur became a member of the UN on 27 sept 2002.

Unrest started in the country in April 2006 following riots in Dili. A ratly in support of 600 East Timorese soldiers, who were dismissed for deserting their barracks, turned into rioting where five people were killed and over 20,000 fled their homes.Fierce fighting between pro-government troops and disaffected Falintil troops broke out in May 2006.As of 25 may 2006, Australia, Portugal, New zealand and Malaysia sent troops to Timor, attempting to quell the violence. At least 23 deaths occurred as a result of the violence. In June-July 2006,prime minister Alktiri resigns over his handling of the violence. Jose Ramos-Itorta is named as premier.

In August 2006, Non-military peacekeeping mission, the UN Integrated mission in East Timor, or Unnit,is set up.In Dec.2012 UN ends its peacekeeping Mission.

The Timor has a lower middle-income economy. About 37.4% of the country’s population lives below the international poverty live. It continues to suffer the aftereffects of a decades –long struggle for independence against Indonesia occupation which severely damaged the country’s infrastructure.The country is placed 134th on the Human Development Index. Nonetheless, East Timor is expected to have the sixth-largest percentage of growth in GDP in the world for 2013.

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